Objectives:
The purpose of this lab is to observe the charge and discharge curves of a capacitor and determine its time constant. The capacitor is observed with respect to the voltage traveling through the capacitor. Principles:

One of the main principles of this experiment is defined by V = VB [1 – exp (-t/RC)] for a charging capacitor and furthermore, τ is defined by resistance multiplied by capacitance(R * C). Thus, it is important to understand that as the capacitor is charged, over time the voltage will increase rapidly and eventually level off. Also, the other principle of this experiment is defined by by V = VB [exp (-t/RC)] for when a capacitor is discharging, thus the voltage will decrease rapidly over time and eventually level off as well before reaching zero. Apparatus & Procedure:

This experiment required the use of a 1.5 V D-size battery, a battery holder, a digital multimeter, a 220μF capacitor, a 100 KΩ resistor, a DPDT switch, connecting wires, alligator clips, and a stopwatch.

After the apparatus was set up and the multimeter was connected to the capacitor, the first procedure required the capacitor to be charged via throwing the switch towards the battery and simultaneously starting the timer. The voltage across the capacitor was recorded every 5 seconds until the voltage reached a value close the max voltage of the battery (max voltage = 1.52 V). The voltage values for every 5 seconds were plotted on the Y-axis of a graph against an X-axis of time.

After the capacitor was fully charged, the timer was reset to zero. The switch was thrown to the discharging position and the timer was simultaneously started. The voltage was recorded every 5 seconds as the capacitor discharged until it reached a voltage close to 0. The voltage values for every 5 seconds were plotted on the Y-axis of a graph against an X-axis of time. Results:

...An Investigation on Capacitance and RCcircuit
Hamdy Hamdy Abdel Moneim Abdou, Jaime Lorenzo C. Olivares, and Karol Giuseppe A. Jubilo
National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City
Abstract
This experiment is designed to further the understanding of the relationship between voltage, charge, and capacitance of capacitors. This also explains how values of effective capacitance for series and parallel combinations of capacitors are obtained using effective equations. Accurate observations and results from devices such as the Labquest with a volt probe were used in the measurement of the voltage passing through the system in the calculations for the effective capacitances and the time constant of the capacitors. The theoretical and experimental data were used in the measurement of the percent error of the acquired values. It is anticipated that this paper will be consistent with the intuition of the students and serve as a reference for problems concerning the analysis of capacitors and RCcircuits.
1. Introduction
A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the form of an electric field and can release that energy when necessary. Since capacitors can be made in more complex forms, the simplest form of capacitors, the parallel plate capacitor, was used in this experiment for simplification purposes. It works by insulating two metal plates...

...Laboratory No 4
Electrical Systems 100
AC CIRCUITS
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this laboratory test was to make comparisons between theoretical and practical results and to develop a greater understanding of factors affecting the operation of complex AC networks.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS
The error in the results ranges from 0.02% to 22.63% and the phase angle errors ranged from 0.02° to 17.27°. This suggests that part of our results were very accurate (series parallelRC network) and the rest of our results were severely affected by the interference and resistance of the inductor. Overall, all measurements were carefully and accurately made, however there were uncontrollable factors that need to be considered.
RESULTS
SERIES PARALLEL RC NETWORK TABLE 1: QUANTITY MEASURED VALUES FREQUENCY PERIOD INPUT VOLTAGE (EI) IMPEDENCE (ZT) VR1 (rms) VC1 (rms) VR2 (rms) VC2 (rms) IT (rms) IR1 (rms) IC1 (rms) IR2 (rms) IC2 (rms) 1.25 kHz 800 !s 5.2 V (Z=E1/IT) 2352.94!-43.20° VOLTS !t ANGLE 1.81 V 96 !s 43.20° 2.76 V 106 !s -47.70° 2.06 V 53 !s 23.85° 2.06 V 53 !s 23.85° CURRENT ANGLE 2.210 mA 43.20° 2.210 mA 43.20° 2.168 mA 42.30° 2.060 mA 23.85° 0.760 mA 113.85°
THEORETICAL CALCULATED VALUES 1.25 kHz 800 !s 5.2 V 2333.12!-43.22° 1.829!43.22° V 2.839!-46.78° V 2.092!23.02° V 2.092!23.02° V 2.230!43.22° mA 2.230!43.22° mA 2.230!43.22° mA 2.092!23.02° mA 0.772!113.02° mA
The measured data, in table 1, is a very accurate...

...A. ENG237-02: Transients in RC and RL Circuits
0. Introduction
The objective of this experiment is to study the DC transient behaviors of RC and RL circuits.
This experiment has divided into 6 parts:
1. Charging curve from measured data ( R = 10M Ω and C = 4 mF )
2. Draw the charging curve by the graphical method
3. Discharging curve from measured data ( R = 5M Ω and C = 4 mF )
4. Draw the discharging curve by the graphical method
5. Display of the charging and discharging curve of capacitor
6. Display of the charging and discharging curve of inductor
1. Theories
(a) Capacitor
Capacitor is an electrical passive device for storing charge in the form of electric field. In its simplest from, It consists basically consists of two conductors which are separated by a dielectric medium (non-conductor) such as air, waxed paper, plastics, etc. The capacitance of capacitor is directly proportional to the surface areas and the inverse of the separation of the two conductors. The dielectric constant of the non-conductor is also affecting the capacitance.
FIGURE 1 Capacitor symbol
For an ideal capacitor, the capacitor current iC is proportional to the time rate of change of the voltage across the capacitor:
Where C is the proportionality constant and is known as capacitance.
(b) Inductor
Inductor is an electrical passive device for storing energy in the form of magnetic field....

...CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis
3.1
Introduction
The steady-state behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. First, the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electric energy occur under essentially sinusoidal steady-state conditions. Second, an understanding of sinusoidal behavior makes possible the prediction of circuit behavior when nonsinusoidal sources are used through the use of techniques such as Fourier analysis and superposition. Finally, by specifying the performance of a circuit in terms of its steady-state sinusoidal behavior, the design of the circuit can often be simplified. Needless to say, the importance of sinusoidal steady-state behavior cannot be overemphasized, and many of the topics in future experiments are based on a thorough understanding of the techniques used to analyze circuits driven by sinusoidal sources. In this experiment, the behavior of several types of circuits will be examined to determine their behavior when excited by sinusoidal sources. First, the behavior of both RC and RLC circuits will be examined when driven by a sinusoidal source at a 3-1
given frequency. Subsequently, the frequency response of both a low-pass filter and a high-pass filter will be considered.
3.2 Objectives
At...

...5/21/2014
Pull Pin Secuirty Alarm System Circuit Diagram and Its Working
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Home » Pull Pin Security Alarm System
Pull Pin Security Alarm System
May 27, 2013 By Administrator
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This circuit helps us to get alerted when anybody picks our pockets or bags. The circuit is very helpful
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prevent our goods getting pick pocketed. The circuit is called a pull pin security alarm because it ge
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Pull Pin Secuirty Alarm System Circuit Diagram and Its Working
Pull Pin Security Alarm Circuit Diagram:
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The arrangement of the circuit is as follows. The circuit has a pin which is fixed to the pocket and th
other end is...

...an RC and RL circuit to and determine the values of , the charging and discharging voltage of capacitor and the inductor current. Besides that, this experiment also to determine the damping criteria in an RLC circuit.
We will use PSpice Microsim software to obtain the values of, the charging and discharging voltage of capacitor and inductor current. also we will determine the damping criteria in an RLC circuit using the same software. The graph will shows all the parameters needed by placing the current and voltage not to produce the values of voltage of capacitor and inductor current.
Calculation will be done to determine the value of, the charging and discharging voltage of capacitor and inductor current and to determine the damping criteria for RLC circuit. As conclusion, the transient simulation process done in an RC, RL and RLC circuit provide the results by showing the all the parameters values in the simulation graph.
A theoretical calculation is done to compare the accuracy values between simulation and calculation.
EQUIPMENT
Computer
Microsim PSpice software
PART A : SIMULATING AN RC TRANSIENT
OBJECTIVES
Stimulate and investigate an RC transient circuit.
Compare and determine the values between simulation and theoretical calculation.
THEORITICAL BACKGROUND
RC...

...Practical Filter Circuits
“A Practical Project”
Course instructor: Professor Yasser G. Hegazy Lab Instructors: Eng. Yassmine Adel Hassan Eng. Yassmine Zaghlool Eng. Radwa Sayed Eng. Ramy Hanna Eng. Fadwa Fouda Eng. Randa El-Khosht Eng. Reham Fouad
Project Objective: The main objective of this project is to gain some experience in building and analyzing small practical circuits. Upon completion the project, students will be able to distinguish between the different types of filters, to identify the appropriate circuit components for building filter circuits, to perform measurements of electric quantities and to test the Project Description: The concept of filters has been an integral part of the evolution of electrical engineering from the beginning. Several technological achievements would not have been possible without electrical filters. Because of this prominent role of filters, much effort has been expended on the theory, design, and construction of filters and many articles and books have been written on them. A filter is a circuit that is designed to pass signals with desired frequencies and reject or attenuate others. As a frequency-selective device, a filter can be used to limit the frequency spectrum of a signal to some specified band of frequencies. Filters are the circuits used in radio and TV receivers to allow us to select one desired signal out of a...