Razak Report vs Rahman Talib Report

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Educational Development in Malaysia: Meeting the Challenges of National Integration Seminar presented by Associate Professor Anna

Christina Abdullah

INTRODUCTION
• Malaysia occupies the southernmost peninsula of Southeast Asia and the northern one-third of Borneo. • It became a nation on September 16, 1963 when Sabah and Sarawak joined Malaya which had earlier gained independence from the British on August 31, 1957 to form a single federation. • Malaysia has a democratically elected government with a constitutional monarch.

Population (26,640,200)
• Malaysia - multi-ethnic population consisting of native (bumiputera) and ‘immigrant’ (non-bumiputera) ethnic groups. • Malays - main indigenous ethnic group. The main ‘immigrant’ groups -Chinese and Indians • Bumiputeras 65.1% (2000). • Chinese 26.0 % • Indians 7.7 %

HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA
• • •

Primitive and Feudal Period (35,000BCE-1786)
The first human beings arrived in East Malaysia around 35,000BCE and in West Malaysia around 25,000BCE. On the peninsula, the aboriginal people are collectively known as the Orang Asli. The modern Malays are the descendents of the Deutero-Malays – an amalgam of many early ethnic groups including Indians, Chinese, Siamese, Arabs, and Proto-Malays. During the 13th century, a great maritime kingdom called Srivijaya emerged in the Malay Archipelago. However, as other ports emerged towards the end of the 13th century, Srivijaya’s influence declined and paved the way for the Malays to emerge as the dominant power in the Malay Archipelago. Malacca was founded in 1400 by Parameswara, a prince from Sumatra.The strategic location of the port of Malacca at the narrowest part of the Straits of Malacca allowed it to control the lucrative spice trade. Revenue from port taxes and services greatly enriched Malacca. Muslim traders from Arabia and India brought Islam to Malacca. Soon after establishing his kingdom, Parameswara converted from Hinduism to Islam



1

• Malacca fell to the Portuguese in 1511. • The Dutch defeated the Portuguese and conquered Malacca in 1641 • After that it was the British who colonized all of Malaysia.

Primitive and Feudal Period (35,000BCE-1786)
• Education during this period was typical of feudal societies. Only members of the royalty and nobility had the benefit of formal education that prepared them for ruling the masses. • Education for the rest of society was largely of an informal nature involving the passing down of traditional life skills from generation to generation. • However, the Islamic clergy established a small number of Qur’anic schools or pondok for the purpose of religious education.

The British colonial period (1786-1957)
• Captain Francis Light of the British East India Company convinced the Sultan of Kedah to allow them to build a fort in Penang, an island off the northwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula in 1786. Penang, Malacca, and Singapore collectively came to be known as the Straits Settlements. The main concern of the British was to maintain peace and order to facilitate the exploitation of the economic resources of Malaysia, especially tin and rubber. The British encouraged mass immigration of workers from China and India to work in the tin mines and rubber plantations respectively. Rapid urban development took place during the booming colonial economy. The Malays remained in rural areas;the towns were dominated by the Chinese and a minority of Indians who eventually controlled commerce and industry.

Colonial period can be divided into 3 phases:

• •

• 1786 – 1941 Laissez faire (divide and rule) • 1941- 1945 (Japanese occupation) • 1945 – 1957 (after Japanese occupation)





1786-1941: laissez faire
• During the colonial period, four types of schools existed – English schools where English was used as the medium of instruction and three types of vernacular schools, viz., Malay, Chinese and Indian. Christian missionary groups...
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