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QUESTIONS AND ESSAY PLANS
1(a). Describe one theory of intelligence. (9 marks)
Paragraph 1 Introduction
Introduce learning theory and Ericsson et al.’s (1993) ideas on deliberate practice, particularly their suggestion that deliberate practice is all that is needed for expert performance. Describe evidence for, such as Ericsson and Chase’s (1982) study of the university student, SF, and Ericsson et al.’s (1993) research on violinists in a German music academy.

Paragraph 2
Outline research on savants and their special expertise. Describe Ceci and Liker’s (1986) research on individuals who spent thousands of hours acquiring knowledge of harness racing and Grabner, Stern, and Neubauer’s (2007) research on adult tournament chess players. 1(b). Evaluate the theory described in part (a). (16 marks)

Paragraph 1 Introduction
Use evidence against, such as Sloboda et al.’s (1996) research, which found no difference in the amount of practice required to achieve a given level of performance. Also use the fact that the mean IQ of those in very complex occupations is much higher than the population mean of 100.

Paragraph 2
Discuss the positive applications. However, on the other hand consider the issue of cause and effect in research on deliberate practice. Then discuss the sample bias of research on intelligence and expertise.

Paragraph 3
Consider that a key weakness of the learning approach is reductionism and explain why this is the case. Conclude why a multi-perspective is better and use Hunter’s (1983) research as evidence. 2. Discuss Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligences. (25 marks) Paragraph 1 Introduction

Introduce Gardner’s theory by describing the criteria that he said needed to be met to become a multiple intelligence, and then the seven intelligences.

Paragraph 2
Outline evidence for, such as: Gardner’s research on geniuses, Lisle’s (2007) research on adult participants with intellectual difficulties, and case studies of savants with brain damage and people with exceptional abilities.

Paragraph 3
Discuss the positives of Gardner’s theory, such as that it offers a broader approach to intelligence and the educational applications of the research. Also consider the further support provided by Goleman (1995) for two of the intelligences.

Paragraph 4
Comment on the weaknesses of the theory, such as the lack of evidence and the fact that the genius-based approach to identifying intelligences is flawed. Also consider that the criteria for multiple intelligences lack scientific validity and that the evidence from savants can also be criticised.

Paragraph 5
Discuss the fact that the multiple intelligences are not completely separate. Also evaluate the problem that the theory is descriptive, not explanatory. Consider the evidence provided by the psychometric approach for some of the intelligences. However, the key issue is the lack any real scientific support for Gardner’s theory, which means it is speculation. Thus, whilst there have been positive applications in terms of education, it is of concern that this theory has been implemented in spite of the lack of evidence. 3. Critically consider the evidence for animal intelligence (e.g. self-recognition, social learning, Machiavellian intelligence. (25 marks) Note that it is better to consider two indicators of intelligence in some depth than try to do all three superficially.

Paragraph 1 Introduction
Describe how the mirror (or mark) test is used to assess self-recognition and outline research such as Gallup’s (1970) research on chimpanzees, which were presented with a full-length mirror. Outline his further research involving the “mirror test” and his research that compared self-recognition in monkeys compared to primates. Describe evidence for self-recognition in other species such as Reiss and Marino’s (2001) research on bottlenose dolphins, and Plotnik, de Waal, and Reiss’ (2006) research on Asian elephants. Explain how...
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