Radars

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  • Topic: Radar, Radio, Doppler radar
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  • Published : February 17, 2013
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ABSTRACT
Topic: - MILITARY RADARS
RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is basically a means of gathering information about distant objects by transmitting electromagnetic waves at them and analyzing the echoes. Radar has been employed on the ground, in air, on the sea and in space. Radar finds a number of applications such as in airport traffic control, military purposes, coastal navigation, meteorology and mapping etc. The development of the radar technology took place during the World War II in which it was used for detecting the approaching aircraft and then later for many other purposes which finally led to the development of advanced military radars being used these days. Military radars have a highly specialized design to be highly mobile and easily transportable, by air as well as ground.

In this paper we will discuss about the advanced features and benefits of military radar, system configuration of a typical military radar, operating the radar, system functions, various terminal equipments used along with their functions and some of the important parts of the radar such as transmitter, receiver, antenna, AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) etc.

MILITARY RADARS
INTRODUCTION
Military radar should be an early warning, altering along with weapon control functions. It is specially designed to be highly mobile and should be such that it can be deployed within minutes.
Military radar minimizes mutual interference of tasks of both air defenders and friendly air space users. This will result in an increased effectiveness of the combined combat

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operations. The command and control capabilities of the radar in combination with an effective ground based air defence provide maximum operational effectiveness with a safe, efficient and flexible use of the air space. The increased operational effectiveness is obtained by combining the advantages of centralized air defence management with decentralized air defence control.

ADVANCED FEATURES AND BENEFITS
Typical military radar has the following advanced features and benefits:  All-weather day and night capability.  Multiple target handling and engagement capability.
 Short and fast reaction time between target detection and ready to fire moment.  Easy to operate and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under severe conditions.
 Highly mobile system, to be used in all kind of terrain
 Flexible weapon integration, and unlimited number of single air defence weapons can be provided with target data.
 High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and accurate tracking. The identification of the targets as friend or hostile is supported by IFF, which is an integral part of the system.

During the short time when the targets are exposed accurate data must be obtained. A high antenna rotational speed assures early target detection and a high data update rate required for track accuracy.

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The radar can use linear (horizontal) polarization in clear weather. During rains, to improve the suppression of rain clutter, provision exists to change to circular polarization at the touch of the button from the display console.

THE SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
A typical military radar system can be split up into three parts: 1) Radargroup
The radargroup consists of antenna, mast unit, remote control, high tension unit, LO/AFC (Local Oscillator/Automatic Frequency Control) unit, radar transmitter, radar receiver, video processor, waveguide drier and IFF interrogator.

The transmitter and receiver forms the active part of the system. The integrated radar/IFF antenna is fitted on the collapsible mast, mounted on the container. The container is connected by cable to the operator/control shelter.

2) Shelter
Shelter contains display unit, processor unit, TV monitor, colour PPI (Plan Position indicator), IFF control unit, air conditioner, battery charger with battery, Radio set with...
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