FACULTY NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
DEGREE COURSE: BSC.EDUCATION
COURSE CODE : BL 302
COURSE TITLE : EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
NATURE OF WORK : GROUP ASSIGNIMENT
YEAR OF STUDY : 3RD YEAR, 2nd SEMISTER
COURSE INSTRUCTOR: MR MWANANZILA, F.
S/NO| NAME| REGISTRATION NUMBER|
1| MWAIPOPO JACKSON| 2009/1393|
2| JOHN VENANCE| 2009/1406|
3| HALISON YELIKO| 2009/2541|
4| ERASTO GASPAR| 2009/2224|
5| SSENTONGO RENATUS| 2009/0421|
6| MAXIMILIAN TUNGARAZA| 2009/0134|
7| SAMWEL RAPHAEL| 2008/0806|
QUESTION 4 Discuss the theory of neoteny in relation to human evolution QUESTION 7 The average sense difference between two individuals increases as they are sampled from the same local population, two separate [populations, two species, two genera and so up to kingdom (such as plants and animals) up to approximately what stage in this sequence can evolution be observed in human life time SUBMISSION DATE; 16th May 2012 (a)Molecular evolution comprises of two terms molecule and evolution. A former term implies as an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special force whilst a latter (evolution) refers to all changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginning of the diversity that characterizes it today. Hence molecule evolution is regarded as the study of the evolutionary patterns and processes of nucleic acids and proteins, as well as the use of these molecules in studies of phylogenetics, population genetics, biogeography, and other areas of research and at different levels of biological organization.DNA(Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a molecule of central-concern in this context.
DNA is made of a long sequence of smaller units strung together. There are four basic types of unit: A, T, G, and C. These letters represents the type of base each unit carries: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. The sequence of these bases encodes instructions. Some parts of your DNA are control centers for turning genes on and off, some parts have no function, and some parts have a function that we don't understand yet. Other parts of your DNA are genes that carry the instructions for making proteins — which are long chains of amino acids. These proteins help build an organism Two general approaches to molecular evolution, firstly is to use DNA to study the evolution of organisms (such as population structure, geographic variation and systematic) and secondly is to use different organisms to study the evolution of DNA At the outset, evolution is dependent on the existence of mutations in the genes coding for different characteristics of an organism. Most mutations in DNA are spontaneous and random, sometimes caused by passing cosmic rays or other exposure to radiation. Mutations may also be caused by errors in the formation of the genes in the parents' gametes in sexual organisms. Additionally, "proofreading" enzymes built into many higher organisms sometimes fail, leaving an incorrect version of an organism's DNA. (Some lower organisms do not have a proofreading step. Many viruses do not proofread copies of their genomes, resulting in their extremely rapid mutation. Moreover mutations in an organism's DNA have deleterious effects on the organism and thus will be immediately selected against, or they will be irrelevant or have only very marginal effects. Only a tiny percentage of all mutations will confer a survival advantage on the organism that inherits it. Even these mutations generally change very little about the organism's structure or function. A small change is much more likely to be beneficial (or at least not harmful) to an organism than a large random change in a system that already works even somewhat well. The next approach of molecular evolution is to use different organisms...