Pyschology 101 Study Outline

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Psychology 101 Review Outline
Chapter 1: Introduction

I. Basic Definitions (pg 3-5):

A. Psychology - The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
B. Theory - A general principle proposed to explain facts are related
C. Hypothesis - A testable prediction about conditions under which particular behaviors
or mental processes work
D. Replication - Repetition of a study to verify research findings
E. Goals of Psychology - To describe, explain, predict, and influence behavior/mental
processes
F. Basic (new knowledge) vs. applied (practical problems) research II. History and Types of Psychology (pg 6-13):
A. Wilhelm Wundt: father of psychology, established 1st psychological lab in Leipzig in
1879, developed introspection
B. Edward Titchener - Wundt's student who brought psychology to the U.S. Developed
structuralism, the idea that basic elements of consciousness combine to form
perceptions.
C. William James - Wrote 1st psychological textbook, Principles of Psychology in 1890,
Developed functionalism, the idea that psychological processes develop as an
attempt to adapt to an environment
D. Classic Psychological Theories & Theorists
1. Behaviorism - B.F. Skinner, John B. Watson, objective measurement
2. Psychoanalysis - Sigmund Freud, making the unconscious conscious
3. Humanistic/Client-Centered - Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers
4. Cognitive, Including Gestalt and Information Processing
5. Evolutionary
6. Biological/Physiological
7. Socio-Cultural - comparison between cultures, influence on the individual
8. Eclecticism
III. Differences between counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers (pg. 14) IV. Types of Research
A.Descriptive Research (pg 16-20)
1. Naturalistic Observation & Case Studies
2. Correlational
3. Sample vs. population
B.Experimental (pg 21-25)
1. Independent vs. dependent variables
2. Placebo effect/control group
C. Field experiments

Chapter 2: Biology & Behavior

I. Types of brain imaging & brain waves (pg 36-37)
A.Electroencephalogram (EEG), electrodes
1. Alpha wave - deep relaxation
2. Beta wave - physical or mental activity
3. Delta wave - deep sleep
B.Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT), x-rays
C.Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
D. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radioactive isotope II. Neurons (pg 37-42)
A.Structure: cell Body, axon, myelin sheath, dendrite, synapse, receptors
B.Function: Action Potential, electrical & chemical signals
C.Neurotransmitters
III. The Brain & Nervous System (pg 43-57)
A.Peripheral vs. central nervous system
B.Autonomic & Somatic branches of the peripheral nervous system
C.sympathetic (excitatory) vs. parasympathetic (inhibitory) branches of the
Autonomic system
D. Brain Anatomy
1. Brain Stem (basic functions)
2. Cerebral cortex (advanced functions)
3. Cerebellum (motor functions, coordination)
4. Thalamus - relay between lower brain & cerebrum; Hypothalamus - regulates
hunger, thirst, temperature, sex drive, sleep/wake cycle, and some emotions
5. Limbic System, including the amygdala (unpleasant emotions)
6. Lateralization (right vs. left hemispheres)
7. Broca's Area (speech production) vs. Wernicke's Area (speech recognition)
8. Pruning vs. plasticity
E. The Endocrine System - Glands that manufacture & secrete hormones into the blood IV. Behavioral Genetics (pg 60-61)

Chapter 3: Sensation & Perception (pg. 71-99)

I.Sensation (pg 71 - 87)
A. Basic Definitions
1.Sensation: process of environmental stimuli being transmitted to brain
2.Perception: Organization & interpretation of sensory stimuli
3.Sensory Receptors: convey environmental stimuli to the brain
4.Transduction:Process of changing environmental stimuli into neural signals...
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