Anal stage: the stage at which children advocate erotic pleasure with the elimination process Archetype: an inherited idea, based on the experiences of one’s ancestors, which shapes one’s perception of the world Altered states of consciousness: conscious level, preconscious level, and unconscious level Amnesia: a loss of memory that may occur after a blow to the head or as a result of brain damage Biofeedback: the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled Bipolar: a disorder in which a person’s mood inappropriately alternates between feelings of mania and depression Client centered therapy: an approach developed by Carl Rogers that reflects the belief that the client and therapist are partners in therapy Conditioning: a type of learning that involves stimulus response connections in which the response is conditional to the stimulus Central nervous system: Spinal cord and the brain
Classical conditioning: a learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus Collective unconscious: the part of the mind that inherited instincts, urges, and memories common to all people Consciousness: an individual’s state of awareness, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions Compulsion: an apparently irresistible urge to repeat an act or engage in ritualistic behavior such as hand washing Cross- sectional study: research method in which data is collected from groups of participants of different ages and compares so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age CS (Conditioned stimulus): a once neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus CR (conditioned response): a response by the conditioned stimulus; it is similar to the unconditioned response, but not identical in magnitude or amount Defense mechanism: Certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality): a person exhibits two or more personality states, each with its own patterns of thinking and behaving Dependent variable: changes in relation to the independent variable Discrimination: the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli. 2. The unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their race, ethnic group, age, gender, or membership in another category rather than on the basis of individual characteristics Depression: a psychological disorder characterized by extreme sadness, an inability to concentrate, and feelings of helplessness and dejection Superego: the part of the personality that is the source of conscience and contracts the socially undesirable impulses of the id Dopamine: Involved in learning, emotional, arousal, and movement Eidetic memory: the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short term exposure Extinction: in classical conditioning, the gradual disappearance of a conditional response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
Endocrine system: a chemical communication system using hormones, by which messages are sent through the blood stream, EEG (electroencephalograph): a machine used to record the electoral activity of large portions of the brain Extravert: an outgoing, active person who directs his or her energies and interests toward other people and things Electroshock therapy: also called (ECT), an electrical shock is sent through the brain to try to reduce symptoms of mental disturbance Ego: the part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways Free association: a Freudian technique used to examine the unconscious; the patients...