Introduction to Psychology
Psychology: Psychology is the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes including perception, cognition and emotion.
- Cognition: is thinking, knowing and processing information - Emotion: changes in facial expressions and adoptive behaviour
Behaviour: is any observable action made by a living person or animal. There are now 2 types of behaviour – overt and covert.
- Overt: observable actions and responses (eating and talking)
- Covert: internal activities (thinking, remembering)
Psychology is a Science because…
• It develops hypothesis’ which can be tested through research • It uses research procedures
• It relies on systematic data collection
• It replicates studies to test results
• It challenges existing beliefs
• Its avoids emotional reasoning and relies on logic
Goals of Psychology…
1. Describe – Try to describe how people think, feel and act in a given situation 2. Explain – Try to understand why people, think, feel and act in a given situation 3. Predict – Try to estimate when, where and under what circumstances this behaviour will occur 4. Control (debated) – Try to influence the behaviour
Ethics: refers to standards that guide individuals to identify good, desirable or acceptable conduct
Ethical Considerations in Psychological Research…
- The Researcher’s Role: must take ethical issues into consideration and is responsible for ensuring that the research is conducted in a manner that participants welfare is most important
- Participant’s Rights: that no psychological or physical harm is caused from research
- Confidentiality: test results and personal data cannot be revealed without written consent
- Voluntary Participation: participant must not be pressured into participating
- Informed Consent: wherever possible participants must be appropriately informed of the type of study and the reasons for research
- Deception: sometimes giving participants information about the research can influence the results, so they don’t always tell the truth. The experimenter must make sure participant does not suffer any distress
- Debriefing: participants informed of purpose at end of study
- Professional Conduct: At all times experimenters are expected to conduct themselves in a professional way
• Completes a medical degree
• Special in psychiatry (completes a post-grad qualification) • Focus – prevention, treatments, diagnosis of mental health problems • Can give patients medical prescriptions
• 4 years full time study in psychology (university)
• 2 years full time post-grad in psychology or 2 years full time practice under supervision • Work in a wide range of specialist areas
• Uses counselling and various types of therapy
Variables in an Experiment…
- Variables: is something that can change or vary in amount over time
- Independent Variable (IV): is an experiment, one variable is manipulated or changed by the experimenter to observe whether it affects another variable and what those effects are. The IV that is manipulated or changed.
- Dependent Variable (DV): The variable that is used to observe and measure the effects of the IV is called the dependent variable. The dependent variable I often the response(s) given by the participant(s).
- Extraneous Variable (EV): The limitations in an experiment.
Reliability: is a test, how consistently the test assesses what it is suppose to assess each time it is given.
Validity: in a test, how well the test assesses what it is suppose to assess.
Pseudoscience: this is a fake or false science
Pseudoscience is not considered a science because…
• It cannot be tested
• It cannot be proved
• Does not follow the scientific method
• Is bias
• Does not test...