Psychology Unit 1

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PSYCHOLOGY
Unit 1

Introduction to Psychology

Psychology: Psychology is the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes including perception, cognition and emotion.

- Cognition: is thinking, knowing and processing information - Emotion: changes in facial expressions and adoptive behaviour

Behaviour: is any observable action made by a living person or animal. There are now 2 types of behaviour – overt and covert.

- Overt: observable actions and responses (eating and talking)

- Covert: internal activities (thinking, remembering)

Psychology is a Science because…
• It develops hypothesis’ which can be tested through research • It uses research procedures
• It relies on systematic data collection
• It replicates studies to test results
• It challenges existing beliefs
• Its avoids emotional reasoning and relies on logic

Goals of Psychology…
1. Describe – Try to describe how people think, feel and act in a given situation 2. Explain – Try to understand why people, think, feel and act in a given situation 3. Predict – Try to estimate when, where and under what circumstances this behaviour will occur 4. Control (debated) – Try to influence the behaviour

Ethics: refers to standards that guide individuals to identify good, desirable or acceptable conduct

Ethical Considerations in Psychological Research…

- The Researcher’s Role: must take ethical issues into consideration and is responsible for ensuring that the research is conducted in a manner that participants welfare is most important

- Participant’s Rights: that no psychological or physical harm is caused from research

- Confidentiality: test results and personal data cannot be revealed without written consent

- Voluntary Participation: participant must not be pressured into participating

- Informed Consent: wherever possible participants must be appropriately informed of the type of study and the reasons for research

- Deception: sometimes giving participants information about the research can influence the results, so they don’t always tell the truth. The experimenter must make sure participant does not suffer any distress

- Debriefing: participants informed of purpose at end of study

- Professional Conduct: At all times experimenters are expected to conduct themselves in a professional way

Psychiatrists:
• Completes a medical degree
• Special in psychiatry (completes a post-grad qualification) • Focus – prevention, treatments, diagnosis of mental health problems • Can give patients medical prescriptions

Psychologists:
• 4 years full time study in psychology (university)
• 2 years full time post-grad in psychology or 2 years full time practice under supervision • Work in a wide range of specialist areas
• Uses counselling and various types of therapy

Variables in an Experiment…

- Variables: is something that can change or vary in amount over time

- Independent Variable (IV): is an experiment, one variable is manipulated or changed by the experimenter to observe whether it affects another variable and what those effects are. The IV that is manipulated or changed.

- Dependent Variable (DV): The variable that is used to observe and measure the effects of the IV is called the dependent variable. The dependent variable I often the response(s) given by the participant(s).

- Extraneous Variable (EV): The limitations in an experiment.

Reliability: is a test, how consistently the test assesses what it is suppose to assess each time it is given.

Validity: in a test, how well the test assesses what it is suppose to assess.

Pseudoscience: this is a fake or false science

Pseudoscience is not considered a science because…
• It cannot be tested
• It cannot be proved
• Does not follow the scientific method
• Is bias
• Does not test...
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