psychology | scientific investigation of physical and mental behavior| experimental method| used to text predictions derived from theory| basic science| accumulation of knowledge for knowledge sake (describe, predict, and explain behavior)| applied science| application of knowledge to solve practical problems (modify behaviour).| Empiricism| knowledge based on observation|
Scientific Method| rules for observation, experimentation, and measurement| Skepticism| reject explanations that lack proof|
Authority| explanations by experts that lack proof|
Intuition| explanations based on personal experience|
Pseudoscience| non-scientific explanations that utilize scientific language| Popular opinion| Explanations commonly accepted|
Past Approaches to Psychology| Structuralism & Functionalism.Wundt; Titchener; Hall; James.Psychoanalysis.Freud.Behaviourism.Watson; Pavlov; Skinner.Humanism.Rogers; Maslow.| Current Approaches to Psychology| Cognitive Revolution.Piaget; Chomsky.Evolutionary Psychology.Daly & Wilson; Tooby & Cosmides; Buss.| Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920)| First to use scientific method to study conscious thoughtConscious awareness of own, use scientific methodWants to break consciousness down into components| Evolutionary Psychology| Investigate function of mental processes| Anatomy of a Research Article| Abstract: Summary of hypotheses, methods, and results.Introduction: Outlines research question; reviews past research and theory; introduces formal hypotheses.Methods: Describes the participants, procedure and materials used.Results: Describes what was found; tables & graphs; statistics.DiscussionAre results consistent or inconsistent with hypotheses?Compare with past research and suggest practical applications.References| Research methods| procedures for obtaining data, which can then be used to answer research questions.| Goals of Psychological Science| Description: describe phenomenon in detail.Systematic observation & measurement of behaviour.Explanation: generate a theory & test it.Theory: model that explains (connects & organizes) existing observations.Hypothesis: statement derived from theory predicting something not yet seen; specific, unique, & falsifiable.Application: once behaviour can be explained, it can then be modified.| Data Collection Tools| |
Case studies.| description of a single person or event; used to study unusual or rare cases.Advantages:Able to study topics that would be impossible otherwise.Lots of data: theory creation.Disadvantages:Low generalizability: unable to generalize findings to other individuals or events.Not systematic: Observer bias.| Observation.| Systematic recording of specific behaviour in a particular setting.Observers trained to record behaviour as objectively and precisely as possible.In Naturalistic observation (e.g. Park) or Laboratory.| Psychological tests.| Instrument designed to assess mental aptitude, personality traits, and abilities.I.Q. test (intelligence).M.M.P.I (mental illness).B.F.I (big five personality traits).Standardized: uniform procedure for administering and scoring the test.Reliability: consistency of the scores derived from the test.Test-retest reliability: same test at two points in time.Alternate forms reliability: two comparable tests.Validity: degree to which test measures what it is intended to measure.Criterion validity: predict other measures of the trait.| Surveys.| standardized instrument assessing attitudes, preferences, & behaviours.-Questionnaire: written questions; respondent records answers.-Interview: oral questions; interviewer records answers.| Representative sample| a group of individuals selected for study that match the population on important characteristics (e.g., age, sex).| Volunteer bias:| unrepresentative sample whereby those who volunteer to participate differ systematically from those who refuse to participate.| Physiological...