Chapter 13 Study Guide
COOPERATION AND COMPETITION
1.What is altruistic behavior? What factors promote it?
2.Describe social loafing. When is it likely to occur? When is it not as likely to occur? 3.What is the prisoner’s dilemma? What do psychologists use it for? What has it shown about cooperation and competition? 4.What role does culture play in promoting the transmission of cooperative behaviors? 5.What factors relate to bystander helpfulness or apathy? What is diffusion of responsibility? 6.What is the basic idea behind Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? Explain the distinction between the morality of decisions and the morality of the reasoning behind decisions? 7.How does moral reasoning change over the course of development? 8.What are some criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory? Gilligan criticizes the theory for its “justice orientation”— what did Gilligan propose as an alternative? Does the evidence demonstrate consistent differences in moral reasoning between men and women?
SOCIAL PERCEPTION AND COGNITION
1.How does early information influence our judgments of others? Describe the primacy effect in impression formation. How can a first impression become a self-fulfilling prophecy? 2.Distinguish between a stereotype and a prejudice. Are stereotypes generally accurate or inaccurate? 3.How do we attempt to measure prejudice? Explain how reaction time experiments can reveal subtle prejudices. Define “aversive racism.” 4.Define the concept of attribution. What is the difference between an internal and an external attribution? 5.Define and describe the three factors (consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness) that we use to make attributions. State how each relates to making an internal or external attribution. 6.Describe the biases commonly seen in attribution, including the fundamental attribution error, the actor-observer effect. List the factors that may account for these biases. 7.How can attributions be...