Psychology of Intervention

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PSYC 452- Dr. Wolff
EXAM 2 REVIEW SHEET
1. Describe the 4 major areas that developed behavior therapy and identify the major people associated with each. Classical Conditioning
* In classical conditioning certain respondent behaviors, such as knee jerks and salivation, are elicited from a conditioned stimulus * Pavlov
Operant Conditioning
* Focuses on actions that operate on the environment to produce rewards or consequences
* Skinner, Thorndike
Social-Learning Approach
* Gives prominence to the reciprocal interactions between an individual’s behavior and the environment * Bandura’s Observational learning theory (e.g., Modeling) Cognitive Psychology
* Emphasizes cognitive processes and private events (such as a client’s self-talk) as mediators of behavior change * Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis 2. Explain and give examples of positive/negative reinforcement, and positive/negative punishment.

* Positive reinforcement involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. When a favorable outcome, event, or reward occurs after an action, that particular response or behavior will be strengthened. One of the easiest ways to remember positive reinforcement is to think of it as something being added. A child who fails to speak in school due to “selective mutism” may be rewarded for speaking with praise, treats, or special privileges. * Negative reinforcement a response or behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus. Aversive stimuli tend to involve some type of discomfort, either physical or psychological. Behaviors are negatively reinforced when they allow you to escape from aversive stimuli that are already present or allow you to completely avoid the aversive stimuli before they happen. One of the best ways to remember negative reinforcement is to think of it as something being subtracted from the situation. For example, on Monday morning, you leave the house early in order to avoid getting stuck in traffic and being late for class. * Positive Punishment: This type of punishment is also known as "punishment by application." Positive punishment involves presenting an aversive stimulus after a behavior as occurred. For example, when a student talks out of turn in the middle of class, the teacher might scold the child for interrupting her. * Negative Punishment: This type of punishment is also known as "punishment by removal." Negative punishment involves taking away a desirable stimulus after a behavior as occurred. For example, when the student from the previous example talks out of turn again, the teacher promptly tells the child that he will have to miss recess because of his behavior. 3. Discuss and be able to draw the ABC model of behavior therapy. * A-B-C model:

* Antecedent(s) – cues to elicit a certain behavior
* Behavior(s) – the action
* Consequence(s) – what happens after the action

4. Describe systematic desensitization and exposure therapies and how you would use them to treat a phobia or anxiety disorder. * Systematic Desensitization :
* Based on the principle of classical conditioning,
* Developed by Joseph Wolpe
* Effective treatment in the reduction of maladaptive anxiety and the treatment of anxiety-related disorders, particularly in the area of specific phobias * Consists of:
* relaxation training
* development of a graduated anxiety hierarchy
* the presentation of hierarchy items while the client is deeply relaxed * Progression after client has mastered their fear at each stage * Success measured by client’s rating scale (1-10)

* Complete a fear hierarchy
* Exposure Therapies:
* In Vivo Desensitization
* Brief and graduated exposure to an actual fear situation or event...
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