Relationships: Outline one or more theories relating to the formation and/or maintenance of relationships (9marks) Evaluate one of the theories outlined above with particular emphasis on the nature of relationships in different cultures (16 marks) Issue
1. Cultural bias: The models have developed due to western studies. 2. Sensitive research topic so people may lie about their relationship. 3. Networking; people can now start a relationship over the internet so proximity, contact may not be an issue 4. Synoptic: world becoming more westernised via globalization 5. Theories are ethnocentric don’t take into account arranged marriages and how the formation of relationship may not be important Debate:
1. Difficult to measure relationships scientifically as they rely on self report studies 2. Even those in westernised cultures have more free will, the move from traditional arranged marriages to joint delegation is shown in Goodwin study of Indian couples brought up in Leicester. Approach
1. Approach: behavioural, the way you act can affect the costs/rewards of a relationship Aggression: Outline and evaluate one social psychological and one biological explanation of human aggression (9+16 marks) Issue:
1. Evolution theory hard to test scientifically so it relies on post hoc reasoning: if behaviour exists today it must have existed previously. 2. Culture bias: the studies of aggression have taken place in western cultures. 3. Gender bias: Deindividuation study by Zimmardo only used female participants; deprivation study by Jiang only used male prison records.
1. Deterministic: if people are in a group they will lose sense of identity which is not always the case 2. Reductionist, biological approach doesn’t take into other factors such as the institution that people are in that may cause violence 3. Biological approach...