Chapter 5: Learning
1. Using the story of Pavlov’s dogs, identify and give an example of two of the four elements of classical conditioning.-Classical conditioning: is a form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus or US. Ex: Pavlov presented dogs with a ringing bell (CS) followed by food (US). The food (US) elicited salivation (UR), and after repeated bell-food pairings the bell also caused the dogs to salivate (CR).
2. Describe stimulus generalization and give an example.- Stimulus generalization: is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. For example, if a child has been conditioned to fear a stuffed white rabbit, it will exhibit fear of objects similar to the conditioned stimulus such as a white toy rat.
3. Describe a conditioned emotional response and give an example.- The conditioned response: is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. For example, let's suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response the the smell is a unconditioned response, and a the sound of a whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.
4. Describe vicarious conditioning and give an example.- Vicarious conditioning: learning emotional response by watching othersFor example, the child becomes afraid of an animal after watching an older sibling or parent show signs of verbal and nonverbal aversion and fear of this same animal.
5. Describe and give an example of two kinds of operant conditioning. - Operant conditioning: (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that...
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