Psychology- Learning/Memory/Cognition

Topics: Classical conditioning, Reinforcement, Memory processes Pages: 10 (2676 words) Published: March 5, 2013
Chapter 5 LEARNING
* BEHAVIOR CHANGES THAT ARE DUE TO OUR EXPERIENCES OR THE ENVIRONENT * Simplest form of learning involves our senses
* Simplest form learning = Habituation: Adjusting to stimuli that do not change. Example: You go into a guy’s room and smell something terrible, after a while you get used to the environment/smell and don’t even notice it. * Humans learn similarly to animals. Patterns of responding are similar to animals.

* Types of Conditioning:
1. Classical conditioning: (Association) Type of leaning in which an association is made between events. -Unconditioned or unlearned response: Dog begins salivating at the sight of food. -Learned: Paired the sound of a bell with food, so once bell rings, dog begins to salivate. * Unconditioned Stimulus (US): triggers a natural response. Example: The food is an unconditioned stimulus. * Unconditioned Response (UR): unlearned, natural response. Example: The salivating. * Conditioned Stimulus (CS): After association with an unconditioned stimulus, triggers a conditioned response. Neutral stimulus before learning. Example: Bell. * Conditioned Response (CR): Learned response to previously neutral conditioned stimulus. Example: Scooping up food gets a dog running toward you for food. * Rules for acquiring UCS-CS connection:

* CS must be present before the UCS. Example: you have to ring the bell before you show the food. * UCS must follow CS closely in time. Example: Ring the bell and then immediately right after show the food. * CS must uniquely predict the UCS

* CS must provide new information about the UCS
* Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
* Acquisition: CS + US
* Extinction: CS alone. A decrease in responding when a CS is alone. Only the bell is presented, therefore salivating decreases. * Reacquisition: CS + US
* Conditioned Emotional Response
* Little Albert: Baby Albert who was only a year old was given a baby rat to play with. Albert enjoyed playing with the rat until a gong was beaten every time he played with it. Making Albert terrified of playing with the rat and anything else that was white and furry. * Fear/Phobias

* Positive Emotions; Example: Advertisements
* Drug Cravings
* Taste Aversion; Example: All you can eat barbeque buffet. Ate too much and threw up. For 15 years just the smell of barbeque made him noxious. * Biological preparedness: Tendency to learn certain associations with only one of few paring due to the survival value of the learning. Example: Taste Aversion. You only need something to happen once for you to be conditioned to it.

* Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
* Russian Physiologist
* Discovered classical conditioning
* Reflexes, stimuli, and responses.
2. Operant condition: Voluntary behavior learned though consequences. Example: From Big Bang Theory: Sheldon offering Penny chocolate anytime she did something he approved of. He was ‘Shaping’ her. * Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated. This idea is the basis of operant conditioning. * B.F Skinner (1904-1990)

* Studied observable, measurable behavior
* Skinner box: A box where Skinner put a rat in a box. The box contains a lever that when pulled a pellet came out. He trained the animals to pull the lever when the light was green. * Reinforcement: Anything that increases the likelihood of a response. Example: Candy, Money, Good Grades, Praise, Vacations, Acceptance, Promotions. Social Praise is one of the most powerful reinforces. * Primary Reinforcer: Reinforcer meeting a basic biological need or drive. *...
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