Psychology Depression, Bipolar Study Guide

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Crisis:
* occurs when there is a perceived challenge or threat that overwhelms the capacity of the individual to cope effectively with the event * unexpected emotional (depression) and biologic (NVD, HA) responses occur. Functioning is severely impaired * if positive, there is opportunity for growth and change as new ways of coping are learned. If negative, suicide, homelessness, or depression can result * generally lasts NO more than 4-6 weeks. (by definition there is no such thing as a chronic crisis) Communication (what do we say)

* do not give any unrealistic or false reassurances of positive outcomes over which you have no control * make referrals as appropriate
Guidelines for Crisis Intervention: Approach| Rationale| Example|
Support the expression or non-expression of feelings according to cultural or ethnic practices| Emotional support helps the person face reality. The emotional expression by the victim maybe culturally driven| Accompany the husband to view the body of his deceased wife| Help the person think clearly and focus on one implication at a time| Focusing on all the implications at once can be too overwhelming| A woman left her husband bc of abuse. At first, focus only on her living arrangements and safety. At another time, discuss the other implications of the separation| Avoid giving false reassurances, such as “it will be alright”| Giving false reassurances blocks communication. It may not be alright| Pt: “my dr says I have a terminal illness”Nurse: “what does that mean to you?”| Clarify fantasies with facts| Accurate info is needed to problem solve| A young mother believes her comatose child will regain consciousness, although medical evidence contradicts it. Gently clarify the meaning of medical evidence| Link the person and family with community resources, as needed| Strengthening the persons social network so social support can be obtained reduces the effect of the crisis| Provide information about a meeting of a support group such as the American Cancer Society|

S/S of ppl in crisis how do they act
-----say things like i can't seem to fxn right 
---- don't feel right
-----too worried about this…mind occupied

Types of Crises:
Developmental Crisis| Situational Crisis| Traumatic Crisis| * Erik Erikson * Normal part of growth and development * Successfully resolving a crisis at one stage allows the child to move to the next * Child will develop positive characteristics after experiencing a crisis * If they develop less desirable characteristics the crisis was not resolved * Maturation events: leaving home for first time, completing school, accepting adulthood| * Whenever a specific stressful event threatens a persons biopsychosocial integrity and results in some degree of psychological disequilibrium * Internal (disease) or external threats * Positive events such as graduation from high school, getting a new job after graduation * If person enters a new situation without adequate coping skills a crisis may occur| * initiated by unexpected, unusual events that can affect an individual or a multitude of people |

Grief and Bereavement
* Grief: an intense biopsychosocial reaction to the loss of a loved one. Often includes spontaneous expression of pain, sadness, and desolation * Bereavement: the process of mourning and coping with the loss of a loved one. It begins immediately after the loss, but it can last months or years * Dual Process Model

* Loss-orientated coping: preoccupation with the deceased, emotions relate to relationship with deceased person * Restoration-oriented coping: preoccupation with stressful events as a result of the death including financial issues, new identity as widow * Oscillation: process of confronting (loss oriented) and avoiding (restoration oriented) the stresses associated with bereavement

Phases of...
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