Chapter 9 Outline
* Cognition is the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating. * Concept is a metal grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. * Environment plays a big role in intelligence.
* Algorithm, logical rule or produce that guarantee solving a particular problem. * Heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. * Insight a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. * Confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. * Fixation the inability to see a problem from new perspective, by employing a different mental set. * Mental set a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. * Overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct. * Language Development:
* Month 4: babbling variety of sounds
* Month 10: Household language
* Month 12: One-two word stage
* Month 24+: Telegraphic speech, Complex sentence
* Language our spoken, written, or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning. * Linguistic Language is Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think. * Animals are smarter than what we may think.
* Intelligence is mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. * Emotional intelligence the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. * Intelligence Quotient (IQ) defined originally as the ratio of mental age. * Average IQ score would be 100
* Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. * Reliability the extent to which a test yields consists results, as assessed by the consistency of...