Psychology Chapter 6 Notes

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Learning – long lasting change in behavior resulting from experience Classical Conditioning – a form of learning in which the first stimulus is the signal of the occurrence of the second stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (US/UCS) – the original stimulus that elicits a response Unconditioned response (UR/UCR) – the involuntary, reflexive response to unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus – the stimulus associating with the original stimulus to elicit a response Conditioned response – salvation elicit from the bell (not getting there yet) Acquisition – learning is taken place once animals response to conditioned stimulus without the existence of unconditioned stimulus the animal has acquired a new behavior

Delayed conditioning – the procedure in which conditioned stimulus is presented first and then the unconditioned stimulus is presented while the conditioned stimulus is still evident/continued Extinction – the process of unlearning a behavior

Spontaneous Recovery – after a conditioned response has been extinguished with no further training, the response briefly reappears upon the presentation of the conditioned stimulus Generalization – the tendency in which animals response to certain stimuli that are similar the conditioned stimulus Discriminate – in which subjects can be trained to tell the difference between various stimuli Aversive conditioning – negative responses to CSs/USs

Eg. Baby Albert experiment: loud noise(US), in which baby Albert fears (UR), is paired with white rat (originally US), so baby Albert then learned to be afraid of white fluffy stuff (generalization) white rat become CS; CR is the response to the white rat alone Second Order/Higher Order conditioning – when CS elicits a CR, the CS is then used as US to condition a response to a new stimulus Eg. Dog salivates when hearing bell rings. Pairing bells with flash lights or others will cause dog to salivate with flash light/ others alone. Learned taste aversion –developing aversion for a certain food/drink because you have experienced uncomfortable feelings after ingesting it. Salient – easily noticeable and therefore create a more powerful conditioned response Operant conditioning – is a sort of learning based on the association of consequences of one’s behavior Law of effect – if the consequence of a behavior is pleasant, the stimulus-response (S-R) connection will be strengthened, and the likelihood of the behavior will increase; if the consequence of a behavior is unpleasant, the stimulus-response (S-R) connection will be weakened, and the likelihood of the behavior will decrease Instrumental learning – consequence is the instrument shaping the future behaviors Skinner box – is a box that has a way/path to deliver food and a lever to press to peck in order to get food

Reinforcer – for the sample above, it will be the food. It is something that reinforce/ motivate the subject to have a specific behavior Anything that makes a behavior likely to occur
Reinforcement – the process of giving the reinforcer
defined by its consequence
Positive reinforcement: a behavior is strengthened for the addition of something pleasant Negative reinforcement: a behavior is strengthened for the removal of something unpleasant Escape learning – when one terminate an aversive stimulus

Avoidance learning – enables one to avoid unpleasant stimulus altogether Punishment – unpleasant consequence that will a behavior, making a behavior less likely Shaping – a way to reinforce/speed up a behavior we desire to reach 1. Positive punishment: addition of something unpleasant to make a behavior less frequent 2. Negative punishment/ omission training: the removal of something pleasant to make a behavior less frequent Chaining – when subjects are taught to perform a number of responses successively in order to get a reward Discriminative stimulus – the stimulus that the subject is able to distinguish from Primary reinforcers – rewards such as food, water and rest; whose...
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