Sensory-store = Less than one sec + Very limited
Short-term-store = Less than one min + 7+/-2
Long-term-store = Up to a lifetime + Unlimited
PETERSON AND PETERSON (1959)
A- To see if rehearsal was necessary to hold information in the short-term-store M- Participants were given sets of three letters to remember (such as AUK and BUJ), but were immediately asked to count backwards in threes out loud for different lengths of time. This was done to prevent rehearsal. Participants were then asked to re-call the letters in the correct order. R- The results of the study showed that participants had forgotten virtually all of the information after 18 seconds. C- It was concluded that we cannot hold information in the short-term memory unless we can rehearse it.
A- To see if people, when given something unfamiliar to remember, would alter the information. M- Participants were asked to read a story called 'War Of The Ghosts' which was a native American legend. Later they were asked to retell the story as accurately as possible. This retelling was repeated several times during the weeks that followed. R- Bartlett discovered that his participants found it difficult to remember bits of the story with spirits and other bits changed, so that the story made more sense to them each time they recalled it. C- Bartlett concluded that our memory is influenced by knowledge that we already know.
CRAIK AND LOCKHART (1972)
A- To see if the type of questions asked about words will have an effect on the number of words recalled. M- Participants were presented with a list of words, one at a time, and asked questions about each word, to which they had to answer 'Yes' or 'No'. Some questions required structural processing of the words; others required phonetic processing and the remainder required semantic processing. They were then given a longer list of words and asked to identify they had answered questions about. R- Participants identified 70% of the words that required semantic processing, 35% of the words that required phonetic processing and 15% of the words required semantic processing. C- The more deeply information is processed, the more likely it is to be remembered.
UNDERWOOD AND POSTMAN (1960)
A- To see if new learning interferes with previous learning. M- Participants were divided into two groups; -Group A were asked to learn a list of word pairs ( cat-tree, candle-table, apple-lake) They were asked to learn the second list of word pairs (cat-glass, candle-whale, apple-sadness) -Group B were asked to learn the first list of words only. R- Group B's recall of the first list was more accurate than that of group A C- New learning interfered with participants' ability to recall the first list.
GODDEN & BADDELEY (1975)
A- To see if people who learn and are tested in the same environment will recall more information than those who learn and are tested in different environments M- Participants were deep sea divers. They were divided into four groups. All of the groups were given the same list of words to learn. Group 1 had to learn underwater and recall underwater. Group 2 had to learn underwater and recall on land. Group 3 had to learn on land and recall underwater. Group 4 had to learn on land and recall on land. R- Groups 1 and 4 recalled 40% more words than groups 2 and 3. C- Recall of information will be better if it happens in the same CONTEXT that learning takes place
LOFTUS AND PALMER (1998)
A- To see if asking leading questions effect the accuracy of recall M- Participants were shown films of car accidents. Some were asked 'How fast was the car going when it hit the other car?' Others were asked 'How fast was the car going when it smashed into the other car?' R- Those who heard the word 'smashed' gave a higher speed estimate than those who heard 'hit'. C- Leading questions will affect the accuracy of recall. The word 'smashed' led participants to believe the...