LO 1 Define psychology. “The study of behavior & mental process”
LO 2 Describe the scope of psychology and its subfields. “The psychology is a broad field that includes many perspectives and SUBFIELDS. APA the American Psychological Association and the APS The Association for Psychological Science. Psychologists conduct two major types of research Basic research which is “often done in universities” and focuses on collecting data to support (or refute) theories and gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Applied research focuses on changing behaviors and outcomes and Often leads to real-world applications.” This type of research has generated behavioral interventions for children with autism, its goal are more pragmatic or practical. LO 3 Summarize the goals of the discipline of psychology. “These goals made a foundation for the scientific approach used in psychology and the experiments designed to carry out research.” Goals vary by subfield Common goals
Describe: Describe or report what is observed
Explain: Organize and understand observations of behaviors
Predict: Predict behaviors or outcomes
Control: Use research findings to shape, modify, and control behavior LO 4 Identify influential people in the formation of psychology as a discipline.
Plato (427-347 BCE): Truth and knowledge exist in the soul before birth; humans are born with some degree of innate nature contributes to human capacity for cognition
Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Knowledge is result of experiences; nurture plays role in knowledge acquisition.
Descartes (1596-1650): Body and mind interact as separate entities; dualism.
Fechner (1801-1887): Mind and body connection understood by studying sensation; one of founders of physiological psychology.
Wundt (1832-1920) Founded first psychology lab and first psychology journal founded in Germany Measured “psychological processes through introspection” and used objective reports. Titchener (1867-1927)--Structuralism Set up lab at Cornell and conducted introspection experiments aimed at determining most basic elements of mind and Trained participants to provide detailed reports of subjective experience James (1842-1910)—Functionalism Offered first psychology classes in U.S. and Focused on study of purpose of thought processes, feelings, and behaviors.
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)--Denied PhD graduation from Harvard, but established own lab at Wellesley College and Became first female president of APA. Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)--First female PhD in psychology Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983)--First Black female PhD; denied faculty position because of gender and Explored impact race relation impact on self-esteem.
LO 5 List and summarize the major perspectives in psychology.
Psychoanalytic “Freud focused on “abnormal” functioning of mind Believed behavior and personality influenced by conflict between inner desires and societal expectations.”
Behavioral “Pavlov Conducted classical conditioning experiments” Examines human behavior as learned primarily through associations, reinforcers, and observation. “Watson Established behaviorism which viewed psychology as scientific study of behavior that could be seen and/or measured” “Skinner Focused on operant conditioning which is learning that occurs when behaviors are rewarded or punished”
Humanistic Rogers and Maslow Founded humanistic psychology which suggested that human nature is essentially positive and Posited that people are naturally inclined to grow and change for the better.
Cognitive psychology Miller Researched memory which provided catalyst for cognitive revolution and Examines mental processes that directs behavior, focusing on concepts such as thinking, memory, and language. Cognitive neuroscience Explores physiological explanations for mental processes and connections between behavior and the human nervous...
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