1.1 Psychology—Behave Yourself!
LO 1.1.1 – (a.) Describe the origin of the word psychology and its current definition AND (b.) differentiate between overt and covert behaviors. LO 1.1.1 ANSWER: The word psychology comes from Greek words, psyche; which means “mind” and logos; which means “knowledge or study.” “Overt” behaviors are actions that are observable, such as; brushing one’s teeth, sneezing, laughing, and spreading jelly on your toast. “Covert” behaviors are things we do that cannot be seen; such as; sleeping, dreaming, and thinking.
LO 1.1.2 – Explain how psychologists can be both scientists who conduct research to discover new knowledge as well as professionals who apply knowledge to solve problems. LO 1.1.2 ANSWER: Psychologists are scientists in that they observe and assess behavior in humans and animals but also study them to understand why we think and do the things that we do and they take their research and information and apply what they’ve discovered to figure out solutions on the best possible way to react or be.
LO 1.1.3 – (a.) Explain the problems in using the commonsense approach to understanding behavior and why more accurate information can be obtained by engaging in critical thinking and the systematic gathering and analysis of empirical evidence, AND (b.) define the following terms as they relate to this approach: 1. scientific observation- An empirical investigation structured to answers questions about the world in a systematic and intersubjective fashion (observations can be reliably confirmed by multiple observers). 2. Intersubjective method- means more than one observer can confirm them. 3. Research method-A systematic approach to answering scientific questions. LO 1.1.3 ANSWER: Problems surrounding the common sense approach is that we cannot assume there is one specific reason to daily life that is why things happen or are the way that they are. Psychologist hope to achieve humanity by being able to describe, understand, predict, and control behavior so that humanity also, describe, understand, predict, and controls their behaviors. LO 1.1.4 – Describe the four goals of psychology.
LO 1.1.4 ANSWER:
Description is typically based on making a detailed record of scientific observations. 2.
Understanding means we can state the causes of a behavior. 3.
Prediction is the ability to forecast behavior accurately. 4.
Control, the ability to alter the conditions that affect behavior. 1.2 Critical Thinking—Take It with a Grain of Salt
LO 1.2.1 – Explain why critical thinking is central to (a.) the scientific method, (b.) the study of psychology, and (c.) the everyday understanding of behavior. LO 1.2.1 ANSWER:
Critical thinkers ask the hard questions, critical thinking is important in the scientific method because it evaluates idea by probing for weaknesses and calls for resonating and analyzing evidence to support beliefs. The study of psychology requires critical thinking because it investigates the “common sense” belief and tries to refute or support the “common sense” belief through observation, surveys, experiments and case studies. Critical thinking by seeking to falsify common beliefs; including one’s own common beliefs, is going to help the general population understand the reactions and consequences of human behavior and without psychologists, we would be lost.
LO 1.2.2 – Describe the process of critical thinking.
LO 1.2.2 ANSWER: The process of critical thinking begins with the willingness to actively reflect on ideas. Critical thinkers will evaluate ideas by probing for weaknesses in their reasoning and analyzing the evidence supporting their beliefs. They will question assumptions and look for alternate conclusions. Critical thinkers can recognize and constantly revise the understanding of the world. LO 1.2.3 – Explain how the validity of beliefs can be judged by using critical thinking principles. LO 1.2.3 ANSWER: One will ask questions such as, “What...
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