Study |Change |Effect to results | |
|Loftus & Palmer |Get p’s to observe staged but “real” accident. 2. Higher ecological validity – accounts for variables|More accurate estimates of speed | | |such as emotional response to situation. 3. Harder to replicate so lower reliability. 4. Not all may |Less Ps reporting broken glass | | |have a clear view of incident. Reduce validity. |Less variation between verbs | | | |Less alteration of memories | |Gardner & Gardner |Use several chimpanzees in the study. Improves validity; chimps are social creatures & so behaviour |Learn more signs | | |more likely to be normal than Washoe’s (lone chimp with human company). |Use syntax better | | | |Better sentence construction | |Deregowski |Present Hudson pictures on animal skin rather than paper. Evidence that p’s in original study were |Higher validity. More likely to be testing 3D/2D perception rather than familiarity with stimulus | | |confused by paper used in presentation – not familiar with it. |materials. Likely that more Africans would be able to perceive pictures as 3D. | | |Make sure instructions are properly translated. Use Back Translation. |More Africans can perceive depth | | |Use texture gradient consistently in pictures. Only used sometimes by Hudson & shown to be a key |Less ethnocentric results | | |depth cue for 3D perception. |Time to construct model would not change or time spent on trident illusion | |Baron-Cohen |Set up Sally Anne task using people rather than dolls. |More valid. Autists may be better at doing task than in original study. More able to answer the qs | | | |where will Sally look for the marble. All other qs have same answers. 2. Higher validity; may be | | |Observe autists in home/school environment & see if they show lack of TOM in everyday situations. |better/worse or the same at TOM but results would reflect performance in real life (particularly if | | | |observation covert e.g. using camera). | |Milgram |Carry out the task but instead of using equipment to shock use a questionnaire with hypothetical |Expect that they are less likely to punish people to a serious level. Less likely to obey authority | | |situations in it, this can be done completely anonymously which will...
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