Psychology 105

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Psychological Questions: nature / nurture
What does intelligence define?
Why do we dream
Can babies think?
In what ways are all humans alike?
Psych:
The scientific study of behaviors & mental processes
oBridges natural and social science
Behavior: anything an organism does
Mental Processes mental subjective experiences that we infer from experience oEvaluation of ideas.
8 psychological perspectives:
Neural Explanations: increase/decrease w/ neurons in the brain •Genetic explanations: examining anger with genetic similarities •Evolutionary Explanations: survival benefits
Learning explanations: patterns: road rage
Cognitive explanations: interpretation of a situation (thinking/judgment) •Social explanations: influence of others
Cultural explanations: varying across cultures
Developmental explanation: physical maturation, age related change Cognitive/Social Psychology

Pysch as a Profession:
Basic vs. Applied Research
Basic: pure science
Applied: aims at solving practical/social problems
increase scientific knowledge base
Psychiatry: medical treatment and therapy
Clinical Psychology: study/assess treat psychological disorders •Counseling psychology: assisting people (community situation) •Academic Psychology: not at all clinical
Psych as a science:
What do you mean and how do you know? – evidence
Theory: idea/conceptual model
Explains existing facts/ makes predictions
Hypothesis: what you’re looking for (testable prediction)
Operational definition: statement of procedures used to define research variables •Provides a clear line/definition of what certain results mean Replication: repeating the essence of a research study ( do those basic findings extend to others) Tools of Psychology

Case studies: 1 or few people studied in depth
Surveys: self-reported attitudes or behaviors (representative, random sample) •Naturalistic observation: watching and recording behavior in anatural environment •Correlation studies: how much the extenet to which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other •Correlatoinal coefficient: -1 to 1: postitive or negative correlation •Experimentation: manipulating certain factors in a controlled setting to observe effect oIndependent variable: being manipulated

oDependent variable: the effect
Biological Bases of Behavior
Everything psychological is biological
Franz Gaul: study or the shape of the skull/brain, in relation to psychology: oVarious regions of the brain have various jobs
Discoveries since then:
oNature of nerve cells and their communication
Biological psychologists study the spcych/bio link
oBody’s informations system is based on neurons- basic building block oCell bodysem
oDendrites: receivers messages from other neurons
oAxons – transmitters (send messages to other neurons
oMyllen sheath: insulates axons, speeds body’s impules from cell body to axons oNeural impulses travel at about 200 mph (reaction time)
Neurons communicate
oSantiago cajal and Charles shenngter: study neurons
oTransmission, discover gap b/w neurons: synapses (junction) oNeurotransmitters bind to receptive neuron & synaptic gapD •Different types of neurotransmitters:
oAcetylchoune: enables learning + memory, muscle contraction oDopamine: movement, learning, attention, emotion
oSerotonin: mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
oNorepinephne: alertness, arousal
oEndorphins: natural opiates: pain, physical exertion
Effect of artificial opiates vs. natural endorphins
Repeated use of artificial: brain stops making its own natural opiate w/ at drug there is extreme discomfort •More of synthetic opiates or whitdrawl
Studying the brain:
oClinical observation: oldest, most effective. Brain injury studies oManipulate brain: electrical, chemical, magnetic stimulation •(Harvard’s Brain bank)
oRecord brain activity: electrical activity
EEG: amplified reading of waves of...
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