1) Four big ideas in psychology:
a. Critical thinking is smart thinking
b. Behavior is a bio psychosocial event
c. We operate with a two-track mind (Dual processing)
d. Psychology explores human strengths as well as challenges 2) Why do psychology?
e. The limits of intuition and common sense
i. Enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. ii. May aid queries, but are not free of error.
iii. Hindsight Bias: the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. 1. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. iv. Overconfidence: thinking you know more than what you actually know. f. The scientific attitude
v. Composed of curiosity, skepticism, and humility. vi. Curiosity: passion for exploration.
vii. Skepticism: doubting and questioning.
viii. Humility: ability to accept responsibility when wrong. g. The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do. 3) How do psychologists ask and answer questions?
h. The scientific method
ix. Construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations. x. Theory: an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. (Example: low self-esteem contributes to depression). xi. Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often promoted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. (Example: people with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed). xii. Research: to administer tests of self-esteem and depression. (Example: people who score low on a self-esteem test and high on a depression test would confirm the hypothesis). i. Description
xiii. Basic purpose: to observe and record behavior. xiv. How conducted: do case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations. xv. Weaknesses: No control of variables; single cases may be misleading. xvi. Case Study: a technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. xvii. Survey: a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people. xviii. Wording can change the results of a survey
xix. Random Sampling: when each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusions into a sample (unbiased). 2. If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid. xx. Naturalistic Observation: observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunchroom constitute naturalistic observation. j. Correlation
xxi. Basic purpose: to detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another. xxii. How conducted: compute statistical association, sometimes among survey responses. xxiii. Weaknesses: does not specify cause and effect. xxiv. When one trait or behavior accompanies another. xxv. Correlation Coefficient: a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. 3. Example: R = + 0.37
a. R is the correlation coefficient
b. + is the direction of relationship (either + or - ) c. 0.37 indicates the strength of relationship xxvi. Correlation DOES NOT mean causation.
d. Low self-esteem could cause depression
e. Depression could cause low self-esteem
f. Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause low self-esteem and depression. xxvii. Illusory Correlation: the perception of a relationship...