Psychological Perspectives

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In this assignment I will be explaining the principal psychological perspectives. I will explain the different psychological approaches to health and social practice and assessing the different psychological approaches to study. Psychology is the focus on different subjects such as the human development, social behaviour and cognitive processes. There are different approaches that have been developed in order to explain the psychology. These perspective or approaches include the behaviourist, social learning, psychodynamic, humanistic, and cognitive and the biological perspectives. These perspectives focus on trying to explain human development by focusing on how people learn and develop. Also the perspectives explain how an individual’s behaviour can be influenced by ones childhood (notes). The behaviourist approach focuses on how people are influenced by the environment and the behaviour of an individual is learnt from the environment. As psychology is a scientific study, behaviorist, as a psychological perspective it obtains its evidence. The behaviorist approach uses scientific studies as they can be objectively measured. This perspective does not believe in what people say but believes in how the environment determines behavior. The behaviorist perspective as a scientific study it observe behavior relating to the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned stimulus-response units.The behaviourist approach includes two theories of learning. These theories of learning include the classical and operant conditioning. These theories explain how people learn from the environment (www.simplypsychology.org). The classical condition is was a theory which was developed by a Russian physiologist by the name of Ivan Pavlov. The classical conditioning theory is a learning process that occurs when there is a link/association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. As classical conditioning involves a stimulus and a natural occurring stimulus.He used the dog experiment in order to back up his theory. Pavlov used the digestive research of the dog in order to back up his theory. The observation of the experiment suggested that salivation was a learned response. Dogs normally salivate when the see food, however Pavlov was intrigued and interested to see why dogs started to salivate when they see people who normally feed them. For him to reach to a conclusion he set up the dog experiment. In order to show that salivation was a learned response his experiment is as explained. (www.niu.edu) When it was time for the Pavlov assistant to feed the dogs, they would ring a bell. The amount of the saliva was measure. The assistant did this a couple of times to make sure that the dog was used to the routine. After the trials, Pavlov then rang the bell without showing the food and the result was that the dog had salivated the same way when it saw the food. The classical conditioning procedure

* Food was considered as the stimulus or in other words the unconditioned stimulus. This stimulus caused the response to happen naturally. * The dog salivated when it saw the food. When this happened it was considered as an unconditioned response. This response happened naturally. * When the bell was rung the dog would salivate. This happened because that the production of saliva was there because the bell was associated with the presenting of food. This is a conditioned stimulus * The salivation is a conditioned response because the dog is reacting to the thought that the bell is associated with food.  (www.niu.edu)

Then operant conditioning is a theory that was developed by an American psychologist called Burrhus Fredic Skinner. His experiment was based on his experiment on rats and pigeons. He developed a well-known device caused the Skinners Box. The operant conditioning looks at ones actions and its consequences. The operant conditioning was based on two types of reinforcement, the positive and negative...
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