Exam 4 Review Sheet
* Define “adolescence” and “puberty”.
Adolescence: transition between childhood and adulthood, is a product of both biological and social forces Puberty: a flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
* What are the main sex hormones? What do they contribute to in boys and girls? estrogens & androgens
Both are present in boys and girls but in different amounts
Boys: release large amounts of androgen testosterone which leads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, and other male sex characteristics. Estrogen increases GH secretion adding to growth spurt and in combination with androgens stimulates gain in bone density Girls: Estrogen released cause breasts, uterus and vagina to mature, the body to take on feminine proportions and fat to accumulate. Also contributes to regulation of menstrual cycle. Androgen in girls influences height spurt and stimulates underarm and pubic hair
* What is the difference between primary and secondary sexual characteristics? What are examples of each? Primary characteristics involve the organs for reproduction. Males have testicles, female’s uterus. Secondary characteristics involve traits characterized by hormonal changes such as the differences due to puberty. Examples include breasts, facial hair, the growth of pubic hair and underarm hair. There is no major difference between male and females as far as primary characteristics are concerned. However, the two sexes differ in appearance with the development of secondary sexual characteristics
* What is spermarche and menarche? What are the average ages for each in North America? Menarche: This is the first menstrual cycle in females Average age= 12 ½ years Spermarche: The first ejaculation in a boy. Average age = 13 ½ years
* Describe the factors that influence the timing of puberty. Compare and contrast early and late maturing boys and girls, according the research cited in the textbook. Heredity, Nutrition & exercise – for girls only Poor nutrition can lead to an earlier period and excessive exercise can also lead to a later period. -Boys who matured earlier: popular, confident, relaxed, Independent, positive body image, report more stress & problem beh., Good adjustment Late maturing boys: unpopular, anxious, talkative, attention-seeking, negative body image, -Girls that mature earlier: unpopular, withdrawn, low confidence, anxious, negative body image, more deviant behavior, Poorer quality relationships with family Later: popular, sociable, lively, physically attractive, positive body image
* Please review the sections on sexual activity and substance abuse. Think of how the various findings reported in the text relate to the video we watch. Be prepared to link textbook information to the video, The Lost Children of Rockdale County. 293-299
Production of androgens in young people of both sexes lead to an increase in sex drive Heavily influenced by young person’s social context. Typically parents provide little to no info on sex, discourage sex play and rarely talk about sex in children’s presence. If kids do not receive info from parents they will find out from books, magazines, friends or tv shows that depict that partners are spontaneous, taking no precautions and having no consequences. Early and frequent teenage sexual activity is linked to personal, family, peer and educational characteristics.
* Describe Piaget’s formal operational stage. What is hypothetico-deductive thinking? Describe the pendulum problem that is often used to test this type of thinking. Piaget: formal operational stage- 11 years on, ability to think scientifically, ability to think abstractly. Capable of hypothetico-deductive reasoning: A form of problem solving. When faced with a problem, a person starts with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they...