Psyc221 Notes

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PSYC 221 Book Notes for Exam #1
Chapter 1
* Social Psychology-branch of psychology that seeks an understanding of how people affect and are affected by others. * Behaviorism- theoretical approach that seeks to explain behavior in terms of learning principles, without reference to inner states, thoughts, or feelings * Freudian Psychoanalysis-theoretical approach that seeks to explain behavior by looking at the unconscious forces inside the person * ABC Triad- Affect (how people feel inside), Behavior(what people do), Cognition(what people think about) * Anthropology- the study of human culture-the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a group of people * Economics- the study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and the study of money * History- study of past events

* Political Science- the study of political organizations and institutions, especially governments * Sociology- the study of human societies and the groups that form those societies * Psychology- the study of human behavior

* Biological Psychology (physiological psychology, neuroscience)- the study of what happens in the brain, nervous system, and other aspects of the body * Clinical Psychology- branch of psychology that focuses on behavior disorders and other forms of mental illness, and how to treat them * Cognitive psychology- the study of thought processes, such as how memory works and what people notice * Developmental psychology- the study of how people change across their lives, from conception and birth to old age and death * Personality psychology- the branch of psychology that focuses on important differences between individuals * Philosophy- “love of wisdom”; the pursuit of knowledge about fundamental matters such as life, death, meaning, reality, and truth * Applied research- research that focuses on solving particular practical problems * Within-subjects design- an experiment in which each participant is exposed to all levels of the independent variable * Between-subject design- an experiment in which each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable (most common in research) * Hypothesis- an idea about the possible nature of reality; a prediction tested in an experiment * Theories- unobservable constructs that are linked together in some logical way * Independent variable- variable manipulated by researcher * Dependent variable- variable that results because of independent variable * Operational definitions- observable operations, procedures, and measurements that are based on the independent and dependent variables * Confederate- a research assistant pretending to be another participant in a study * Construct validity of the cause- independent variable is valid representation of theoretical stimulus * Construct validity of the effect- dependent variable is valid representation of the theoretical response * Quasi-experiment- a type of study in which the researcher can manipulate an independent variable but cannot use random assignment * Internal validity- the extent to which changes in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable * Confounding- occurs when the effects of two variables cannot be separated * Factorial design- includes more than one independent variable or factor * Main effect- effect of a single independent variable on the dependent variable, ignoring other independent variables * Interaction- joint effects of more than one independent variable on the dependent variable * Reactance- unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when someone is trying to restrict their freedom * Field experiment- conducted in a real-world setting

* Experimental realism- the extent to which study participants get so caught up in the procedures that they forget they are in an experiment * Mundane realism-the extent to which the setting of an...
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