Psyc112 Study Notes

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Psychology 112 notes

Thought and language:

Samuel Morton (1820’s – 1850’s)
* Intelligence testing - measured cranial cavity
* Believed head size was directly related to intelligence (the more the better) * Also believed he could rank races

Paul Broca (1824-1880)
* Weighed brains and ranked people
* Thought that larger brains meant greater intelligence

Sir Frances Galton (1822-1911)
* Believed intelligence was heredity
* Developed statistical techniques with Karl Pearson
* Formed the term ‘eugenics’
* Study individual differences in performance on tasks of perception, quickness and strength

Positive correlation: as one variable increases, so does the other Negative correlation: as one variable decreases, so does the other Correlation does not imply causality

Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
* Pioneered intelligence testing
* Believed intelligence was a general ability as opposed to a general accumulation of knowledge

Contemporary intelligence tests: WAIS, WISC (Stanford-Binet) * Verbal: general knowledge, vocab, comprehension, arithmetic skills * Performance: assembly of parts, drawing completion, sequencing, block design * Verbal reasoning, quantitative (mathematical) reasoning, visual reasoning, short term memory and paper/pencil intelligence tests

Spearman’s two-factor theory of intelligence:
-Intelligence consists of:
* G (general) factor – underlies performance on all intelligence subtests * S (specific) factors – specific to the type of task (computation, vocab, digit span)

Fluid and Crystallised intelligence (Cattell)
* These types of intelligence are two forms of general factor * Fluid: ability to learn, perceive relationships and deal with new problems. This type of intelligence stops increasing and starts to decrease after adolescence * Crystallised: acquired knowledge from one’s culture. This type of intelliegence continues to increase with age

Sternbergs’s Triarchic theory of intelligence
* Analytic: analyse, plan strategy, compare and evaluate
* Creative: design, invent, imagine
* Practical: adapt to environment, apply

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences: (involves a modular view of the mind) * Linguistic: poetry, writing, explanation
* Musical: composition, performance
* Logical/mathematical: logical reasoning, solving maths problems * Spatial: manipulating images, reading a map, putting suitcases into boot of a car * Bodily-Kinesthetic: fine control over motor behaviour eg netball, dancing * Personal-self: understanding self and motives, making changes to ones self * Personal-other: ability to notice moods of others, motivations and intentions of others

Intelligence tests: school performance only 25% of the variance is explained (school performance r = .5) * school performance depends on other factors (the other 75%)

Job performance and creativity:
* correlated with IQ tests
* r = .3 to .5
* many other factors contribute to job success
* creativity is not highly correlated with IQ or academic performance

IQ scores
* positively correlated with longevity
* negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease, mortality from injuries and alcohol related mortality * causes: more education, healthier environments and better choices

heritability studies – identical vs. fraternal twins, separated at birth: identical twins react more similarly to their environments and have their environments react more similarly to them

Ethnicity tells us little about intelligence
* difference in IQ scores between African-American and European-American are diminishing * mean IQ scores of immigrant groups increase over a few generations * African-American children adopted into high socio-economic status families show significantly higher IQ scores

Analogical representations – picture of dog represents concept of a dog and also has many...
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