Psyc 100 Study Guide Exam 1

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1. Psychological sciences- the study of mind, brain and behavior. Mind refers to mental activity. Behavior is used to describe a wide variety of actions that occur in all organisms. 2. Dualism- the idea that the mind and body are separate yet intertwined. 3. Neuroscience- the scientific study of the nervous system. 4. Structuralism- an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into basic underlying components or elements. 5. Functionalism- an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior. 6. Gestalt theory- a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements. 7. Theory- a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events. 8. Hypothesis- a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct. 9. Longitudinal studies- involve observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in the same people over time, either with no intervention by the observer with intervention by the observer. a. Advantages- provide information about the effects of age on the came people, allowing researchers to see development changes. b. Disadvantages- expensive, take a long time, and may lose participants over time. 10. Cross-sectional studies- involve observe and classifying developmental changes that occur in different groups of people at the same time. a. Advantages- faster and less expensive than longitudinal studies b. Disadvantages- unidentified variables may be involved 11. Control group- the participants in a study that receive no intervention or an intervention different from the one being studied. 12. Experimental group- the participants in a study that receive the intervention. 13. Independent variable- in an experiment,...
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