The exam consists of 50 multiple choice items based on the lectures given from the start of the semester and readings from chapters 1, 2, 3, & 4. Each student will see a somewhat different set of items, but everyone will see similar concepts and items of equal difficulty. Some items will be taken from the Lilienfeld chapter quizzes, but the majority will be original items based on the lectures. The following ideas, concepts, terms and such could appear on the exam. NOTE: If it isn’t on this list it won’t be on the exam. Be sure to use the practice exam to prepare. All items on the practice exam correspond to items on the actual exam.
Lectures & readings on History and scientific thinking
1 What are four different ways of knowing and which kind is used in psychology? 2 What kinds of knowledge are represented in “data-land and theoryland’? What is a psychological construct (or more simply, a construct)? An operational definition? What is a theory and what is it good for? A hypothesis? 3 What are the three-traditions that have characterized the field of psychology? What methodology is associated with each? Where do behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology and neuroscience fit? Which kinds of assumptions characterize each? 4 Who is Wilhelm Wundt? William James? What approach to psychology is associated with Wundt? with James? How are structuralism and functionalism different? 5 Who are JB Watson and BF Skinner and what kind of psychology is associated with them? What were the core assumptions of this kind of psychology? 6 Who is Jean Piaget and what kind of psychology is associated with him? What was the core assumption of this kind of psychology? 7 Who is Francis Galton? Alfred Binet? What are the core assumptions of the kind of psychology associated with these individuals? 8 Who is Sigmund Freud and what kind of psychology is associated with him? What are the core assumptions of this kind of psychology? 9 What is critical thinking? What is the confirmation bias? Belief perseverance? 10 What are the six principles of scientific thinking? To what do they refer? 11 What is the nature-nurture debate? Free will versus determinism?
Lectures and readings on Research methods
12 What are the goals of science?
13 What is the Descriptive approach to studying human behavior? What are the different types of descriptive methods? What are examples of each? What are the strengths and limitations of these methods? 14 What are correlational methods? What is the strength of this method? What are its limitations? What is the correlational coefficient? What is a strong correlation? a weak one? What does the direction of a correlation (positive, negative) refer to? What is an illusory correlations? The problem of the 3rd variable? 15 What are the components of experiments? Why is the experiment considered the “gold standard” in psychology? What are the limitations of experiments? What is generalizability? 16 In research, what are confounds? What is experimenter expectancy effect? What is a double-blind research design? 17 What are measures of central tendency? What kind of information does each provide? Which is most vulnerable to extreme values? What is the standard deviation? 18 What is the normal curve?
19 What are descriptive statistics? What are inferential statistics? What is statistical significance? 20 What is measurement? What is reliability? What is validity? 21 What are ethical principles used in psychology?
22 What are heuristics? Availability heuristic? Representative heuristic? What is a base rate and how can it help you avoid reasoning errors? Hindsight bias? Overconfidence?
Lectures and readings of biological psychology
23 What is biological psychology? What is a key assumption of Biological psychology? What does homologous mean? 24 How are human brains and animal brains & behavior similar?...