Fall 2009/ Exam #3
1. What are the four kinds of reinforcers mentioned in your book? Define them and be prepared to give an example of each. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IS INFORCE A STIMULI
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS TO REMOVE A STIMULI
POSITIVE PUNISHMENT IS WHEN A TARGITED BEHAVIOUR IS REMOVED BY PRESENTING A STIMULAS shouting at the dog NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT IS WHEN TARGET BEHAVIOUR BY REMOVING A STIMULAS toy removal
2. What are the four schedules of partial reinforcement we discussed? Which produces the highest rate of responding and the most resistance to extinction and why?
FIXED INTERVAL reward every 5 mins
FIXED RATIO reward every 5 responses
VARIABLE INTERVAL an avg. every 3 mins and varied
VARIABLE RATIO an avg. every 5 behaviours
3. What is the significance of latent learning and observational learning? How did discovery of these two important types of learning change our definition of psychology?
OBERVATIONAL LEARNING learning by looking at others by observing LETENT LEARNING learning that is not directly observable
4. Define conditioned taste aversion, instinctual drift, subliminal learning, discovery learning, direct instruction, learning styles.
TASTE AVERSION it is when we recognize a taste and in the future we try to avoid it due to its effect to us INSTINCTUAL DRIFT is the tendency of an organism to revert to instinctive behaviors that can interfere with the conditioned response SUBLIMINAL LEARNING sub means below and luminal light it is the theory that states that a person can learn even with little information which if is continuously repeated DISCOVERY LEARNING is when we learn after experiencing something for our self DIRECT INSTRUCTION learning through given instruction e.g. lectures not experiments LERNING STYLE it the type of style that best fits a individual
5. When we have a memory of an event it is a reconstruction of the event. Explain what that means. What information goes into our reconstructions of the past?
Trace memories of the event
Context of the person asking the question
6. What are the functions, span(capacity), and duration of each of the three types of memory processes?
Short term memory
Long term memory
7. What happens in sensory store? What does it mean when we say that these processes are preattentive?
PREATTENTIVE –SO FAST WE DON’T KNOW WE ARE DOING IT
IMAGE IS CREATEDLD
WE SCAN IMAGE AND PICK UP INFORMATION THAT WE WANT FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS
8. The three types of processes that go on in short term memory (working memory) are.. I listed them ..beginning with the match-mismatch identification of incoming information, maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal—be able to give a number of examples of the latter…
REHERCE IT TILL IT IS STORED IN LONG TERM MEMORY
9. What are proactive and retroactive interference? Be able to give examples.
RETRO ACTIVE ability to recall something that you have learned in the past after lerning something new PROACTIVE ability to learn second lesson after learning the both lessons
10. Be able to name and give examples of all the different types of long term memory.
SEMANTIC OUR KNOWLOGE ABOUT FACTS FO THE WORLD
EPISODIC RECOLLECTION OF EVENTS OF OUR LIVES
EXPLICIT MEMORIES WE RECALL INTENTIONALLY AND WHICH WE HAVE CONSTANT AWARENESS IMPLICIT MEMORIES FOR HOW WE DO THINGS
PROCEDURAL ABILITY TO IDENTIFY A STIMULAS MORE EASILY OR QUICKLY AFTER WE ENCOUNTER SIMILAR STIMULI
11. Define encoding, storage and retrieval.
ENCODING IS THE PROCESS OF GETTING INFORMATION INTO OUR MEMORY BANKS STORING IS THE PROCES OF KEEPING INFORMATION IN OUR MEMORY
REVIVAL IS THE REACTIVATION OR RECONSTRUCTION OF EVENTS FROM OUR MEMORY STORAGE
12. What are the different forms of retrieval? Be able to identify one of each in the items...