Psci 140

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Spring 2012
PSCI 140 Democracies around the World
Final Exam Study Guide
Instructor: Satoshi Machida

Part I: Words Identification (Content of Important Articles) (40 points)

1. You have to be prepared so that you can explain the following words and concepts.

* Authoritarian states
---A small group of individuals exercise power
Government is not constitutionally responsible to the state
Public—little role in leadership selection
Individual freedom is restricted
May be institutionalized and legitimate
* Totalitarian states
Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.[2] Totalitarian regimes stay in political power through an all-encompassing propaganda campaign, which is disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that is often marked by political repression, personality cultism, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of speech, mass surveillance, and widespread use of terror. * Ideas of communism (terms of communism)

Equality (goal)
No private property
No market
Utopia (eventually no government)!
* Policies implemented by Mikhail Gorbachev
* The Great Leap Forward (China)
The Great Leap Forward (1958-61)
Make steel!!
Famine—30 millions (7 ~ 30 millions)
Achieve utopia !
* The Great Cultural Revolution (China)
* Structural adjustment programs (conditionalities)
Conditionalities (IMF, World Bank)
Liberalization
Privatization
Abolish subsidies
Reduce tariffs
Streamline of the state
* Dependency theory
Core and periphery
Periphery (primary commodities)
Core (manufactured goods)
Structure of exploitation at a global level
* Import substitution
Create a positive condition for domestic industries !
Countries restrict import !
Tariff and non-tariff barriers !
Latin American countries in the 1970s
Problems?
Lack of competitions
Lack of innovation
* Export-oriented industrialization
Directly integrate into the global economy !
Find a “niche” in the global market
Basic technologies (e.g. textiles)
 Advanced technologies (e.g. automobiles)
East Asia (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore…)
* Apartheid (South Africa)
Racial segregation (legal justification)
“Tribal homelands”
Severe restrictions on freedom !

* Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)
Heritages of Apartheid
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)
Unravel the truth using amnesty
* Economic, political, and social globalization
1. International trade
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
Liberalization of labor
Advantages?
A broader market, competition, innovation, specialization, lower cost, job opportunities Disadvantages?
“Offshoring” of jobs, “Race to the bottom”
The Asian Crisis (1997)
2. Policy diffusion
Political integration
The European Union
The International Criminal Court (ICC)
Advantages?
Peaceful world (fewer wars)
The diffusion of democratic ideas
Disadvantages?
Loss of sovereignty
The “Democratic deficit”?
3. International tourism, Information technology, exchanges of ideas… Advantages?
Global multiculturalism (national global)
New values and identity
International cosmopolitanism (“global village”)
Disadvantages?
Nationalism, fundamentalism…
Cultural homogenization…(jihad vs. “McWorld”)
* Institutional, ideational, and individual explanations for political violence

2. You are supposed to be familiar with the main arguments of the following articles. Remember the main points of these readings.

* Diamond, “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes.”
Classifications of regime types
(a) Liberal democracy
-The United States, Japan…
(b) Electoral democracy
-India, the Philippines…
(c) Ambiguous
-Colombia, Turkey…
Competitive authoritarianism
-Russia, Malaysia…
Hegemonic...
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