PS101 Textbook Notes
Words in RED are important key points
Words in BLUE are key points that will VERYLIKELY to be tested. Words with 必考 means IT WILL BE TESTED, Try me
Words in BOLD means Strong Emphasis
PS: These are subjective notes; the above comments are all based on my personal experience and non-mainstream thinking….
From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
* Psychology as a Term
* Comes from two Greek words
* Psyche – soul, spirit or mind
* Logos – study of a subject
* The study of the mind
* A new Science is Born : The contributions of Wundt and Hall * German Professor – Wilhelm Wundt
* He mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology. * He established the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig in 1879. * He established the first journal devoted to publishing research on psychology in 1881. * 1879 was christened as psychology’s “date of birth” * Wundt is well known as the founder of Psychology
* Wundt’s primary focus was consciousness
* Consciousness is the awareness of immediate experience. * Psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience. * Many of Wundt’s students then fanned out across Germany and North America, especially NA, established many research labs. * G.Stanley Hall(1846-1924)
* Studied briefly with Wundt.
* Established first research lab in America at Johns Hopkins University in 1883. * Between 1883 and 1893, 24 new labs established in NA. * Four years later, launched America’s first psychology journal. * He was the driving force behind the establishment of the American Psychological Association (APA) (1892) and elected its first president. * APA = world’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology with over 155000 members and affiliates. * The Battle of the “schools” Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism * Structuralism(构造主义心理学) emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener * Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. * Identify and examine their fundamental components of conscious experience, such a sensations, feelings, and images * Depends on the method of introspection(反思；自省), the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience. * Functionalism(机能主义心理学) was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. * William James wrote Principles of Psychology – most influential text. * He wanted to understand the flow of consciousness – stream of consciousness, therefore he established functionalism and despite structuralism * Both schools faded but functionalism seems to be won because they developed behaviorism and applied psychology. * Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviorism Makes Its Debut * Behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior. * Behavior refers to any over (observable) response or activity by an organism. * Watson argues that psychologists could study anything that people do or say – shopping, playing chess, eating, complimenting a friend but they could not study scientifically the thoughts, wishes, and feelings that might accompany these observable behaviors. * Nature vs. Nurture – Whether behavior is determined mainly by genetic inheritance or by environment and experience. * The experiment of infants
* Put infants into different environment and make them into...
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