Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary —and more ambitious— challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives. Contents [hide] * 1 History * 2 Approaches * 2.1 The traditional approach * 2.2 PRINCE2 * 2.3 PRiSM (Projects integrating Sustainable Methods) * 2.4 Critical chain project management * 2.5 Event chain methodology * 2.6 Process-based management * 2.7 Agile project management * 2.8 Lean project management * 2.9 Extreme project management * 2.10 Benefits realisation management * 3 Processes * 3.1 Initiating * 3.2 Planning and design * 3.3 Executing * 3.4 Monitoring and controlling * 3.5 Closing * 3.6 Project controlling and project control systems * 4 Topics * 4.1 Project managers * 4.2 Project management triangle * 4.3 Work breakdown structure * 4.4 Project management framework * 4.5 International standards * 4.6 Project portfolio management * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links| -------------------------------------------------
Roman soldiers building a fortress, Trajan's Column113 AD
Until 1900 civil engineering projects were generally managed by creative architects, engineers, and master builders themselves, for exampleVitruvius (first century BC), Christopher Wren (1632–1723), Thomas Telford (1757–1834) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–1859). It was in the 1950s that organizations started to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects.
Henry Gantt (1861–1919), the father of planning and control techniques As a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction, engineering, and heavy defenseactivity. Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool (alternatively Harmonogram first proposed by Karol Adamiecki); and Henri Fayolfor his creation of the five management functions that form the foundation of the body of knowledge associated with project and program management. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management. His work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model. In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad-hoc basis, using mostly Gantt charts and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed. The "Critical Path Method" (CPM) was developed as a joint...