1. Unique purpose
2. Life span
4. Primary customer
6. Developed using progressive elaboration
Project Life Cycle
Key Project Constraints
1. Scope – objective of project
2. Time - Deadline
3. Cost - Budget
4. Quality – Extent of satisfaction
Individuals or groups in the organization who have an interest in, or will be affected by, the project result. E.g. Organiser, team members, vendors
o Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
o Project managers must strive to meet specific scope, time, cost and quality goals of projects.
o They need to facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of the people involved in or affected by project activities.
• Selection and Scope
• Time and Resource
• Human Resource
• Project Finance
• Project Communications
• Project Quality
• Project Risk
• Change Management
Project selection criteria
?Net Present Value (NPV)
?Internal Rate of Return (IRR) AKA Breakeven
Non Financial Model
?Multi-Weighted Scoring Model
✓ Used as evaluation guides
✓ Should not be used as only means for final decision
✓ Selections of projects should be based on how much their predicted outcomes contribute to the goal / objective achievement
Project organizational structure
3. Project Managed
• Perform specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers.
• Leads to operational efficiencies within that group. However it could also lead to a lack of communication between the functional groups within an organization, making the organization slow and inflexible.
• Functional organization best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost.
• Coordination and specialization of tasks are centralized in a functional structure, which makes producing a limited amount of products or services efficient and predictable.
• Similar to “dedicated”
• Groups each organizational function into divisions.
• Each division within a divisional structure contains all the necessary resources and functions within it.
• Divisions can be categorized from different points of view.
• Example, an automobile company with a divisional structure might have one division for SUVs, another division for subcompact cars, and another division for sedans. Each division would have its own sales, engineering and marketing departments.
• The matrix structure groups employees by both function and product.
• Combine the best of both separate structures.
• Frequently uses teams of employees to accomplish work, in order to take advantage of the strengths, as well as make up for the weaknesses, of functional and decentralized forms.
• An example would be a company that produces two products, "product a" and "product b". Using the matrix structure, this company would organize functions within the company as follows: "product a" sales department, "product a" customer service department, "product a" accounting, "product b" sales department, "product b" customer service department, "product b" accounting department.
• Matrix structure is amongst the purest of organizational structures, a simple lattice emulating order and regularity demonstrated in nature.
▪ Weak/Functional Matrix: A project manager with only limited authority is assigned to oversee the cross- functional aspects of the project. Functional managers maintain control over their...
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