UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION In the present context, managing has become one of the most important areas of human activity because of increasing role of large and complex organisations in the society. Because of their increasing role, the organisations have attracted the attention of both practitioners and academicians to find out the solutions for business problems. Concept Defining the term management precisely is not so simple because the term management is used in a variety of ways. Being a new discipline, it has drawn concepts and principles from a number of disciplines such as economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, statistics and so on. Each group of contributors has treated management differently. For example, economists have treated management as a factor of production; sociologists have treated it as a class or group of persons; practitioners have treated it as a process comprising different activities. DEFINITION “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups” --- Koontz “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way” – F.W. Taylor “Management is the art of securing maximum results with minimum effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service” --- John Mee. “Management is the accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people” -- Lawrence “Management is simply the process of decision making and control over the action of human beings for the expressed purpose of attaining predetermined goals” – Stanley V. “Management is a process involving planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling human efforts to achieve stated objectives in an organization.” From the above definitions, the following features are identified:1) Organised Activities: Management is a process of organized activities. Without organized activities, two groups of people cannot be involved in the performance of activities. Where a group of people are involved in working towards a common objective, management comes into existence. 2) Existence of objectives: The existence of objectives is a basic criterion of e very human organization because all organizations are deliberate and purposive creation and, therefore, they should have
Introduction to Management
some objectives. Without objectives, it becomes difficult to define the direction where organized group of activities would lead to. 3) Relationship among resources: Organised activities meant to achieve common goals are brought about to establish certain relationships about the available resources. Resources include money, machine, material, men and methods. All these resources are made available to those who manage the organization. Managers apply knowledge, experience, principles for getting the desired results. Thus, the essence of management is integration of various organisational resources. 4) Working with and through people: Management involves working with people and getting organisational objectives achieved through them. The idea of working through people is interpreted in terms of assigning and reassigning of activities to subordinates. 5) Decision Making: Management process involves decision making at various levels for getting things done through people. Decision making basically involves selecting the most appropriate alternative out of the several. If there is only one alternative, there is no question of decision making. Nature of Management: - The study and application of management techniques in managing the affairs of the organization have changed its nature over a period of time. The following points will describe the nature of management 1) Multidisciplinary: Management has been developed as a separate discipline, but it draws knowledge and concepts from various disciplines like...