Problem Solution

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SYS702 PROBLEM SOLVING FORMALISMS
FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
LECTURE 1:
UNDERSTANDING IT WITHIN
THE CONTEXT OF SYSTEMS

Systems Science
Perspective
IT and Problem
Solving

Socio-technical
Systems

SYS702 Jan-Apr2011

Prepare by Nor Laila Md Noor

2

LEARNING OUTCOMES

• Upon completion of this topic, students will be able to: • Demonstrate a good understanding of the systems science
perspective in contrast with the computer science
perspective.
• Demonstrate a good understanding of systems concepts.
• Demonstrate a good understanding of socio-technical
systems.
• Apply the knowledge and understanding of the concepts
and principles of systems and systems engineering in
problem formulation

SYS702 Jan-Apr2011

Prepare by Nor Laila Md Noor

3

SYSTEMS SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE From Mathematics to IT
SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS
IT & PROBLEM SOLVING

What is Systems Science
Systems Perspective

• Mathematics is the study of quantity (exist as magnitude & multitude), structure, space, and change
• Computer science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation, and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems
▫ It blends the principles, theories and applications of the technologies that underlie the access to information.
▫ This science involves studying the structure, mechanization and expression of algorithms, which are methodical processes for solving problems.
▫ Frequently described as the systematic study of algorithmic processes that create, describe, and transform information.
▫ Visit for historical perspective of CS : http://www.eingang.org/Lecture/

• Information technology (IT) is
▫ the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware.
(Information Technology Association of America (ITAA))
SYS702 Jan-Apr2011

Prepare by Nor Laila Md Noor

4

SYSTEMS SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE
SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS
IT & PROBLEM SOLVING

From Mathematics to IT

What is Systems Science
Systems Concepts

• Systems science is an interdisciplinary field of science that studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science.
▫ It aims to develop interdisciplinary foundations, which are applicable in a variety of areas, such as engineering, biology, medicine and social sciences.
▫ Systems science argues that however complex or diverse the world that we experience, we will always find different types of organization in it, and such organization can be described by concepts and principles which are independent from the specific domain at which we are looking.

▫ We could uncover those general laws, we would be able to analyse and solve problems in any domain, pertaining to any type of system.  The systems approach distinguishes itself from the more traditional analytic approach by emphasizing the interactions and connectedness of the different components of a system.

SYS702 Jan-Apr2011

Prepare by Nor Laila Md Noor

5

SYSTEMS SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE
SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS
IT & PROBLEM SOLVING

From Mathematics to IT
What is Systems Science?

Systems Concepts

• Basic concepts of systems
 The term ―system‖ originates from the Greek term systēma, which means to ―place together.‖
 Common definition
 A system is an entity that maintain its existence through the mutual interaction of its parts.

 Common systems characteristics
 Systems have structure, defined by parts and their composition; • Variation of elements:
• every system consists of a number of distinguishable and functionally different elements

• Pattern or arrangement
• the different elements of a system are not lumped together at random, but the whole of their links forms a network, structure or organisation

 Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as...
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