Classroom Management is defined as the direction of activities in the classroom, which includes routine and discipline. It permits activities to be carried on efficiently and economically. It establishes favorable working conditions and effective procedure that permits activities to be carried on efficiently. Classroom Management focuses on three major components: content management, conduct management, and covenant management. Each of these concepts is defined and elucidated by Froyen & Iverson, (1999) as follows:
Major Components of Classroom Management| Content Management| Conduct Management| Covenant Management| Definition| It occurs when teachers manage space, materials, equipment, the movement students, and lessons that are part of a curriculum or program of studies.| It refers to the set of procedural skills that teachers employ in their attempt to address and resolve discipline problems in the classroom.| It focuses on the classroom group as a social system that has to its own features that teachers have to take into account when managing interpersonal relationships in the classroom.| Observable Behaviors under each component| * movement management, group focus * avoidance of satiation, * management of daily review sessions * management of daily preview sessions * management of lectures/presentations sessions * management of individual/groups in-class work * management of individual/group work during a field trip * management of homework, * management of discussion sessions * management of projects and problem-solving sessions dealing with instruction-related discipline problem like: 1. Off-task behavior 2. Talking without permission (during lectures) 3. Talking without permission 9during class) 4. Failure to raise hand 5. Poor listening and failure to follow verbal directions 6. Late or incomplete assignments 7. Tardiness or absenteeism 8. Failure to be motivated/doing nothing 9. Cheating10.Test anxiety| * Acknowledgement of responsible behaviors * Correction of irresponsible and inappropriate behavior * Ignoring * Proximity control * Gentle verbal reprimands * Delaying * Preferential seating * Time owed * Time out * Notification of parents/guardians * Written behavioral contract * Setting limits outside the classroom * Reinforcement systems| * Get involved with the student * Deal with the student’s present behavior * Get the student to make a value judgment about the behavior * Help the student develop a plan to change behavior * Get a commitment from the student to stick to the plan * Do not accept excuses for failed plan * Do not punish or criticize the student for broken plans.| Adapted from Froyen & Iverson, (1999)
Classroom management is characterized into these approaches: such as assertive, behavior modification, group guidance, business academic, success approach, etc.
APROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Approaches to Classroom Management refer to a set of standards that guide primarily the teacher’s expectations with his/her students in the classroom anchored first and foremost with his or her philosophical notion on what is appropriate. If we base this in philosophical underpinnings, there are only three major approaches to classroom management as it is reflected in the given matrix.