Topics: Population, Demography, Population ecology Pages: 8 (2210 words) Published: April 23, 2013
Population Revision Notes
* Population distribution is how a population is spread (distributed) over an area of land. * Population density is the average number of people living in an area, given as people per square kilometer. The equation is Population Density =

* The terms densely populated and sparsely populated are used to refer to areas with high and low population densities. * The term population density refers to the average number of people in the area and tells is nothing about where in that area people live. * The ideal population density gives and optimum population. * Optimum population is about the ideal number of people that can be supported by the resources available. * Overpopulation: too many people to be supported to a satisfactory level by the available resources. * Under population: too few people to make the most of the available resources. * Optimum population: the number of people that an area can support in a way that allows them to have a sustainable standard of living. * In exams it is common for you to be asked about the GLOBAL distribution. Look for patterns, and talk about continents, countries and hemispheres. More specifically talk about WHY a population has been spread in this way Reasons for high or low population densities

The world population is affected by both physical and human factors. Positive factors encourage people to live in a place which negative factors discourage settlement. Positive | Negative|
Relief: Low lying, flat areas will bring in settlement. Flat land is likely to have a deep soil layer. For example, The Nile Delta.| Relief: Rugged high mountains are very hard to settle on, e.g. the Himalayas| Water: A fresh water supply will encourage settlement. E.g. UK| Water: Areas where water supply is inconsistent or in short supply have difficulty obtaining settlement| Climate: A temperate (Mild) Climate avoids extremes and encourages settlement| Climate: Harsh climates will discourage settlement, for example the Australian outback| Vegetation: Temperate areas have easily manageable vegetation | Vegetation: Vegetation such as that found in the Amazon rainforest can be a very physical barrier to settlement.| Soils: Silt enriched fields will be able to hold a larger yield and therefore hold a larger population| Soils: Unproductive damaged soils will not encourage settlement| Pests and Disease: A country will sufficient finance can eradicate disease causing pests| Political Factors: Some countries have very little investment and poor settlement other factors include economic factors, communications and natural resources| Political Factors: A high wealth country with large investment will encourage settlement| Poor trade links and markets. Poor infrastructure.Limited job opportunities.| Economic Factors – large rich markets for trade. Good infrastructure. (Rails, roads, and services.) Skilled labour force.| Some groups of people prefer to be more isolated e.g. Scandinavians|

Population Growth
Death Rate
The number of death per thousand of the population per year

Birth Rate
The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year - E.g. (23 … out of 1000) The world’s population is growing rapidly. Between the years 1500 – 2000, the population has been rising at an exponential rate. There are two things that affect the population size of the world, or a country.

Exponential Growth – a rate of increase that quickly doubles. * Natural change: this is difference between birth rate and death rate. It tells you by how much the population will be growing per thousand of population per year. So Birth rate - Death rate = Natural Change * When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, more people are being born than are dying. Therefore the population grows – natural increase. If the death rate is higher than the birth rate, it’s known as natural decrease * The population size of a...
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