Political and Economic Aspects of Cultural Differences

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Political and Economic Aspects of Cultural Differences
• production – making of goods
• consumption – using up goods
• exchange – transfer of goods
Subsistence Strategies: how you meet basic survival needs of food, clothing, shelter. • Modes of Production – dominant way you make a living
Relations of Production—relationships that organize production (serfs/lords; workers and capitalists) Means of Production—material resources available for producing food. Food Collectors: Foraging, Hunting and Gathering

Food Producers: Horticulturalist, Agriculturalists, Industrialists

Foraging: (Hunting and Gathering, Fishing)
Live in small, nomadic bands or tribes. No farming / livestock, but there is a well-balanced diet.Some had enough food around them they became sedentary. Horticulture:
Domestication of crops with hands and hand-held tools only. Extensive agriculture, slash and burn agriculture Pastoralism:
Raising of livestock / cattle. Nomadic pastoralists do little or no horticulture. Wealth measured in cattle. Intensive Agriculture:
Intense production of foods with more than just manual labor. Uses irrigation, plows, draft animals, fertilizer. Creates surpluses. Arose with first cities/ State as political system of organization. Industrialism:

Uses heavy industry and machines as major part of subsistence. Has only existed for a few centuries. Much of the world uses industrialization today Modes of Exchange or Distribution:
Gifts (Marcel Mauss) —are reciprocal exchanges based on social relations. Voluntary but also imply obligations and reciprocity. Value is not determined by market value or intrinsic value of the good. Person and object are tied such that the giver and the gift are intertwined in the exchange. Commodities—person and object are alienated. • market exchange – buying and selling of commodities. • generalized reciprocity – little interest in immediate gain • balanced reciprocity – exchanges are equally valued

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