COURSE CODE: COURSE TITLE: NUMBER OF UNITS: COURSE DURATION:
PCP 504 PLANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 3 UNITS 3 HOURS PER WEEK
COURSE DETAILS: COURSE DETAILS:
Course Coordinator: Email: Office Location: Other Lecturers: DR A.O.OLAIYA email@example.com Room 131, COLPLANT Prof V.I.O OLOWE, Prof P.O.ADETILOYE, DR M.O.ATAYESE, DR O.S SAKARIYAWO
Seed germination and dormancy. Juvenility and senescence. Translocation and respiration in crops, role of environmental resources. Water and water stress in plants. Light and solar radiation, role of plant nutrients. Photosynthesis, plant growth and partitioning of assimilates. Yield limiting factors and yield components. Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellins, cytokinins etc, Plant growth and mearsurements, Growth analysis: RGR,NAR,LAI etc, Plant development: roles of plant organs like leaf, stem, root,flower,fruit and seed.
Practical : Students will be taken through various instruments and methodologies in plant growth measurement and analysis tools.
This course is compulsory for all students in the college of plant science and crop production. In view of this, students are expected to participate in all the course activities and have minimum of 75% attendance to be able to write the final examination.
1. The physiology of tropical Crop production by G.R.Squire , C.A.B International, 1990. 2. Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis: A working manual by J.R.Okalebo ; K.W. Gathua and P.L. Woomer, Tropical Soil and Fertility Programme, 1993
E LECTURE NOTES
SEED VIABILITY AND VIABILITY TESTING Viability of a seed refers to the ability of a seed to germinate and produce a “normal” seedling. Seed viability is highest at the time of physiological maturity, though environmental conditions on the parent plant may not permit germination. After physiological maturity, the viability of seed gradually declines. The longevity of seed depends on crop species and on the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. SEED GERMINATIN STAGES: Irrespective of the criteria used for deciding on when seed germination has taken place, the following stages exists: 1. Germination This stage includes water imbibition and all the biochemical and physiological process that culminate in the emergence of the radical and the plumule. 2. Underground elongation At this stage of germination, elongation of both the radical and the plumule takes place at the expense of food reserve in the endosperm. The soil depth through which the plumule can emerge depends on the amount of food reserve in the endosperm. 3. Emergence It is at this stage that the aerial parts of the seedling emerge above the ground. Seedling emergence may be hypogeal if cotyledons remain below the soil surface, or epigeal if the cotyledons are forced above ground by elongation of the epicotyls. 4. Independent growth The period starts with the onset of photosynthetic activity by the seedling plant. Normal functioning of the seedling is established at this stage. With large-seeded species and sprouts from vegetative propagules, there is considerable overlap in time between parental independence and development of photosynthetic food source. GERMINATION TEST: Germination test is most commonly used method to determine seed viability. Seed germination is the consecutive number of steps that will cause a non-dormant or active seed to imbibe water and initiate changes that led to the development of the embryo until the emergence of those essential structures which are indicative of its ability to produce a normal plant. The seed takes up water firstly by imbibition of water is accompanied by swelling of the seed, and as the fine structure of the cells is restored, the metabolic activity beings, thus, signifying the commencement of germination. PROCEDURE 1. Select 30 seeds (beans) from the seed lot 2. Put filter paper,...
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