BIO 143 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW SHEET TEST 5: FALL 2012
Chapter 23: Ventilation
- Be able to list & briefly describe the 4 primary pressures that are associated with ventilation: Atmospheric Pressure, Intra-alveolar Pressure, Pleural Pressure, Transpulmonary Pressure. - What ix external and internal respiration?
- Be familiar with why ventilation occurs (b/c of pressure gradients between alveoli and outside atm.), that air moves down a pressure gradient (high to low pressure) and why inspiration & expiration occur in terms of pressure gradients. - Be familiar that changes in alveolar pressure creates/changes gradients, be familiar with Boyle’s Law. - Be how volume & pressure changes allow for inspiration and expiration to occur. Understand what is going on in figure 23.13 & 14 - Be familiar with the terms elastic recoil and surface tension as they apply to the lungs. Why is surfactant important? What is Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the Newborn and why does it occur? - Be able to describe what muscles are involved with inspiration and how they change the volume of the thoracic cavity (what happens when they contract) and how this creates air flow into the lungs; also be able to describe what muscles are involved with ACTIVE expiration and how they change the volume of the thoracic cavity (what happens when they contract) and how this creates air flow out of the lungs. - Be familiar with the idea that expiration is normally a passive process and occurs b/c the inspiratory muscles relax. - Be familiar with the 2 factors that affect pulmonary ventilation: lung compliance & resistance. Understand what lung compliance means, what conditions decrease lung compliance? Understand what airway resistance means and how it is related to air flow (inversely related - Be able to differentiate between bronchoconstriction & broncodilation and how smooth muscle in the bronchioles causes either constriction or dilation to occur. - Differentiate between the...
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