Physiology

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 35
  • Published : April 5, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Erythrocytes
Survive 120 Days
Hemoglobin
* Globin: 4 folded polypeptide chains
* Heme: Iron group in each polypeptide that binds 02
Enzymes:
* Glycolytic: generate energy through glycolysis due to lack of mitochondria * Carbonic anhydrase: for transport of CO2 into HCO3
Erythropoiesis:
* regeneration of new cells in the bone marrow
Erythropoietin (hormone):
* when kidneys detect not enough 02 they secrete this hormone which stimulates erythropoiesis, increasing 02 capacity Reticulocytes:
* immature RBC’s released to mature if not enough
Anemia:
* below normal carrying capacity of 02 meaning not enough erythropoiesis * Nutritional supplies needed not provided
* Pernicious cant absorb B12
* Aplasticbone marrow doesn’t produce enough RBC
* Renal diseased kidney restricts erythropoietin
* Hemorrhagic too much blood loss
* Hemolyticrupture of too many RBC’s
Polycythemia:
* too many RBC’s
* Primary: erythropoiesis is at uncontrollable rate and blood thickens * Secondary: blood becomes thicker and normal number of RBC’s concentrated in smaller volume Dehydration:
* saturation of cell with blood
Hematocrit % of RBC in blood
* Normal 45%
* Anemia 30%
* Polycythemia 70%
* Dehydration 70%

Erythrocytes
Survive 120 Days
Hemoglobin
* Globin: 4 folded polypeptide chains
* Heme: Iron group in each polypeptide that binds 02
Enzymes:
* Glycolytic: generate energy through glycolysis due to lack of mitochondria * Carbonic anhydrase: for transport of CO2 into HCO3
Erythropoiesis:
* regeneration of new cells in the bone marrow
Erythropoietin (hormone):
* when kidneys detect not enough 02 they secrete this hormone which stimulates erythropoiesis, increasing 02 capacity Reticulocytes:
* immature RBC’s released to mature if not enough
Anemia:
* below normal carrying capacity of 02 meaning not enough erythropoiesis * Nutritional supplies needed not provided
* Pernicious cant absorb B12
* Aplasticbone marrow doesn’t produce enough RBC
* Renal diseased kidney restricts erythropoietin
* Hemorrhagic too much blood loss
* Hemolyticrupture of too many RBC’s
Polycythemia:
* too many RBC’s
* Primary: erythropoiesis is at uncontrollable rate and blood thickens * Secondary: blood becomes thicker and normal number of RBC’s concentrated in smaller volume Dehydration:
* saturation of cell with blood
Hematocrit % of RBC in blood
* Normal 45%
* Anemia 30%
* Polycythemia 70%
* Dehydration 70%

Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
5 Types
1. Neutrophils (2-5 lobes)
5 Days IA,
* phagocytosis, first defenders against bacteria, release NET’s to trap bacteria 2. Eosinophil (2 lobe nucleus) 8-12 days
* phagocytosis of parasites (worms)
* allergic conditions (asthma)
3. Basophils (2-3 lobes)
* very few and live few hours
* similar to mast cells (in connective tissue)
* synthesize histamine (allergic reactions) and heparin (removal of fat) 4. Monocyte:
* become macrophages living months-years
* move to site of infection 8 hours after neutrophils
5. Lymphocyte:
* large central nucleus
* B lymphocytes produce anti bodies
* T lymphocytes directly destroy target cell by releasing chemicals and punching holes in cell that is invades by a virus Amount in blood (starting with greatest) :
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophil, basophils
To remember order:
No Love Makes Elen Bonkers

Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
5 Types
1. Neutrophils (2-5 lobes)
5 Days IA,
* phagocytosis, first defenders against bacteria, release NET’s to trap bacteria 2. Eosinophil (2 lobe nucleus) 8-12 days
* phagocytosis of parasites (worms)
* allergic conditions (asthma)
3. Basophils (2-3 lobes)
* very few and live few hours
* similar to mast cells (in connective tissue)
* synthesize histamine...
tracking img