4.1 Kinematics of simple harmonic motion (SHM) 2 hours
| |Assessment statement |Obj |Student Notes | |4.1.1 |Describe examples of oscillations. |2 |A mass hanged with a spring | | | | |A pendulum moving | |4.1.2 |Define the terms displacement, |1 |Displacement- the shortest distance between two points. | | |amplitude, frequency, period and phase | |Amplitude- the highest displacement from the mean position. | | |difference. | |Frequency- number of oscillation per second. | | | | |Period- time taken per oscillation. | | | | |Phase difference- it’s the difference between two waves having the | | | | |same frequency. | |4.1.3 |Define simple harmonic motion (SHM) |1 |Repeating motions are called SHM. | | |and state the defining equation as | |A is proportional to –x, thus a=(constant)-x | | |a = −ω2 x . | |a=-ω2x | |4.1.4 |Solve problems using the defining |3 |The displacement of an object attached to a spring is 1m and the | | |equation for SHM. | |angular frequency is 2.0Hz. Find the acceleration. | | | | |a=-4. | |4.1.5 |Apply the equations v = vo sin ωt, |2 |E=(1/2)kx02=(1/2)mv2+(1/2)kx2 | | |v = vo cos ωt, v =± ω√(xo2 – x2) | |kx02- kx2= mv2 | | |x = xocosωt and x = xosinωt as solutions to the defining | |v2=(x02-x2)k/m | | |equation for SHM. | |v=± ω(x02-x2)1/2 | | | | |ω=(k/m)1/2 | |4.1.6 |Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, for |3 |Graph of displacement of an object with SHM is | | |acceleration, velocity and displacement during SHM. | |[pic] | | | | |Find the acceleration graph | | | | |Acceleration graph= | | | | |[pic] | | | |...

...Assignment no. 4 (due: October 8, 2013, Tuesday, 11.59 PM)
A look into the centripetal acceleration of Earth
Because of the centripetal forces due to Earth’s rotation, a plumb bob might not hang exactly vertical, along a line orthogonal to the Earth surface and directed to the centre of the Earth, as if it was affected only by the force of gravity. Consider a bob located at a latitude of = 35o North with respect to the Equator. You are asked to determine:
a) The centripetal acceleration (aC) due to Earth’s rotation at that latitude
b) How much does the bob deviate from a radial line directed towards the centre of Earth (Hint: assume the Earth is spherical with radius R = 6370 km and a rotation period of T = 24 h. Indicate with the angle of deviation from the radial line directed towards the Earth centre).
c) How much the bob would deviate at the Equator (E=0) and at the North Pole (N=90o)?
d) Assume that aC was much larger than the acceleration of gravity g (e.g. because g was much smaller than what actually is). To which direction the plumb bob would point, North, South, East or West?
a) Derive here the symbolic expression for the centripetal acceleration aC as a function of R, T and
Numeric value of aC
.028 m/s2
b1) List here all of the forces affecting the plumb bob and their direction with respect to a line directed from the location of the bob to the centre of the Earth
The force of gravity is in the same direction as the...

...Unit 4Physics Notes
Sunday, November 3, 2013
8:09 PM
Any Single disturbance is called a pulse
A series of pulses is called a wave
In the case of the impatient student, his disturbance was parallel to the direction of the
wave itself. Also called a Longitudinal Wave
WAVES
• Waves can transmit two things
○ Can transmit energy
Ex. Light waves from the sun heat the earth
○ Can transmit information
Ex. Radio wave
When the motion of the particles is perpendicular to the motion of the wave, it is called a
traverse wave
Pointing down
Acceleration down
Wave -> We see the motion of the medium
Soundwaves -> air
Lightwaves = electromagnetic waves
Stadium waves -> people
Water waves -> water
Light waves -> no medium
Pointing up
Acceleration up
Without tension, there can be no traverse waves in a medium.
-> Do not occur inside liquids and gases -> can occur on
surface of water though
Inner core of earth has a liquid core, because traverse waves do not got through
Earthquakes can produce traverse, longitudinal, or a combination of the two.
-> longitudinal = compression, travel fast, primary (happen first)
-> traverse = "__________ waves", secondary (happen second)
-> longer delay between S and P waves, means greater distance from the epicenter
A)
B)
C)
D)
Crest
Trough
Amplitude
Wavelenght
Cycle -> one complete wavelength
Amplitude -> half the distance from crest and trough
Wavelength ->...

...PHYSICS 125
Orange Coast College
Spring Semester, 2013
Instructor: Dr. Arnold Guerra III, aguerra@occ.cccd.edu, tel. (714) 432-0202 ext. 21282. http://boltzmann.eng.uci.edu/~aguerra/ Course website: http://www.occ.cccd.edu/online/aguerra/ Lecture: Tuesdays & Thursdays: 9:35 – 11:40 AM, Math Wing Building, Room 149. Laboratory: You must be enrolled in one of two the laboratory sections: Tuesdays, 12:00 – 2:05 PM, Lewis Building, Room 208. Thursdays, 12:00 – 2:05 PM, Lewis Building, Room 208. Office Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays 3:00 – 4:30 PM, or by appointment. (Lewis, Room 203). Textbook: There is one required textbook: (1) Physics, 9th Edition, Volume II, by John Cutnell & Kenneth Johnson (John Wiley & Sons, Inc Publishers, 2012), packaged with WileyPlus. Also we will be using the Laboratory Manual for Physics 125 available online in my website at OCC. An excellent reference book with lots of solved problems is The Schaum’s Outline Series book on "College Physics", 9th Edition, by Frederick Bueche. Homework: Homework assignments will be posted online. You will need to purchase access to the WileyPlus online homework service, unless you bought access last semester when you took physics 120 with me. I will give you 5 chances to type in the correct answer to the homework problems before the due date. You will have about 5 days to work on the posted online homework assignments. If you...

...collision and it will cause severe damage to the car, and may also injure the passengers in it. 3 The passengers’ momentum can be stopped by objects in the car such as dashboard, side door, or windshield, however, it will cause serious injuries because the force would be very great. To increase the safety of the driver and the passengers, safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones, and etc. are introduced. Safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones and etc are designed to reduce the forces on the body if there is a collision. These safety devices are mostly made based on the physics principle of force and momentum, which is
This relationship says that if momentum is transferred over a longer period of time, the force involved is less. If the force of a collision can be reduced, then the chances that someone would get hurt in an accident are lower.4 Since momentum cannot be transformed to another form of energy, it is always conserved during any collision. The change in momentum is then a fixed quantity, and to lower the force, changes have to be made in the time of the collision.5 The time required for the car to stop in a collision have to be increased so that the forces that will impact the occupant will be lower, and they will be less likely to be hurt. If the time taken for the change in momentum on the body is increased, the forces on the body are reduced too. This principle of extending the time of...

...
Free Fall
Rachel Shea
Physics 131 Lab, QL
Hasbrouck 210
Sept. 21, 2014
Abstract
This experiment measures the study of motion by observing the force of gravity acting solely upon an object, and also measures reaction time. If an object is in free fall, the only force acting upon it is gravity. The object used in this experiment was a golf ball that provided some acceleration when dropped. A sensor positioned underneath a table recorded the golf ball’s pattern of motion, when dropped. The main objective of performing this experiment is to measure the velocity and position of the ball to eventually find the acceleration of free fall. A computer program called, DataStudio, was used to create a graph of position vs. time and a graph of velocity vs. time. The second part of the experiment involved randomly dropping a ruler and having your partner catch it to determine reaction time.
Questions
1. The parabolic curves open upward instead of downward because of the golf balls movement over time: where it is dropped from, to where it ends up. The ball begins close to the sensor, then drops to the ground, then bounces back up closer to sensor again, therefore the bounces correspond with the bottom curves of the parabola. If the data were collected from the floor then the curve would open downward. But because the sensor graphs the position from the sensor, the curve was upwards.
2.
-4572009207500
The slope of the velocity versus time graph physically...

...and neutrons) can be
used in diffraction studies.
If one wants to know something about the wavelengths that make up a particular type of radiation (i.e., the spectrum
of radiation), one could use an object such as simple diffraction parallel-slit grating in the form of a spectrometer. For
example, molecules, atoms, and nuclei typically radiate or scatter radiation that corresponds to discrete frequencies
and hence discrete wavelengths, λ. Knowing the spectrum (the intensity and wavelengths) of these radiations can
tell us a lot about the molecule, atom, and nucleus under study.
Since diffraction-grating spectrometers and other types of radiation spectrometers are widely used in all sciences
you should be familiar with the basic physics of such device
What does diffraction look like?
When light diffracts off of the edge of an object, it creates a pattern of light referred to as a
diffraction pattern.
If a monochromatic light source, such as a laser, is used to observe diffraction, below are some
examples of diffraction patterns that are created by certain objects:
...

...1. Properties of light
Reflection
The speed of light is measured through the equation: v = λ f. However, it turns out that when light is reflected off a surface its speed stays the same. This was first proven by Sir Isaac Newton. Under the assumption of perfectly elastic collision, the laws of reflection follow from the laws of motion. To demonstrate, consider a particle traveling towards a flat frictionless surface whose horizontal and vertical velocity components are: VX and VY. When the particle is reflected from the surface there is no change in VX. The vertical velocity component is reversed in direction because of the reactive force of flat frictionless surface. The magnitude of VY is not changed. Since the collision between the particle and the surface is perfectly elastic there is no change in kinetic energy. This also been proven before by measuring the two variables before and after reflection. In order to change the speed of light, either the frequency or the wavelength has to change. The results have shown equivalent values for both of the variables. Thus indicating and proving that the speed of light stays the same after being reflected off a surface.
Refraction
Refraction is the bending of light through a substance. Different substances bend light at different angles. White light is made up of a full spectrum of colors. Each color has a different wavelength, and bends at a different angle. This is the same effect that produces rainbows in the atmosphere....