Phrases and Clauses

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PHRASE
A phrase is a group of words, without a subject and verb, that functions in a sentence as one part of speech.

Examples: leaving behind the dog smashing into a fence before the first test

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
1. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES • contain a preposition and a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition. Examples:
PREP OBJ OF PRE

on the freshly pressed white jacket
PREP OBJ OF PREP OBJ OF PREP

beside the driftwood and seaweed

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
Prepositional phrases modify adjectives or adverbs and are called either adjective phrases or adverb phrases. Adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun by telling what kind or which one. Examples: For Tom, fame is the only reason for writing. (What kind of reason?) The lamp on Tom’s desk was a Christmas gift. (Which lamp?)

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
Adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb by pointing out where, when, in what manner, or to what extent. Examples: Wanting to impress Sue, Tom planned to make reservations at an expensive restaurant. (Make reservations where?) The volcano rumbled in the early morning. (Rumbled when?) Tom consumed the sundae in short order. (Consumed in what manner?) The shovel bit deep into the earth. (Deep to what extent?)

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
2. APPOSITIVE AND APPOSITIVE PHRASES


are words placed next to nouns and pronouns to provide additional information.

An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain it. Examples: She did not care for his hobby, running. My friend Marilyn broke her collarbone.

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
An appositive phrase is a noun or pronoun with modifiers placed next to a noun or pronoun to add information and details. Examples: My jacket, a windbreaker, fits well. (with a subject) I bought a book, an international atlas. (with a direct object) The man gave his wife, his partner for ten years, a beautiful opal ring. (with an indirect object)

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
To set up contrasts, appositives and appositive phrase may begin with the word not. Example: You should leave at seven o’clock, not eight o’clock. Appositives and appositive phrases can be compound. Example: The family -Trapp, his wife, and his children- escaped from Austria during World War II.

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
Two sentences can be combined by turning the information in one sentence into an appositive. Examples: Two sentences: The fruit was picked. The fruit was sunripened pears. Sentence with appositive phrase: The fruit, sun-ripened pears, was picked.

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
3. VERBAL AND VERBAL PHRASES
• • •

A verbal is a word derived from a verb but used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. A verbal with modifiers or a complement is called a verbal phrase. There are three kinds of verbals – participles, gerunds, and infinitives – and the phrases that can be formed around them.

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
3. VERBAL AND VERBAL PHRASES


PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES
A participles is a form of a verb that acts as an adjective.

FORMS OF PARTICIPLES
Kinds of Participles Present Participle Past Participle Forms Ends in -ing Ends in –ed, -t, -en Examples His fascinating responses convinced us The extended table accommodated more people. Having exercised, I rested.

Perfect Participle

Includes having or having been before a past participle

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
3. VERBAL AND VERBAL PHRASES
A participial phrase is a participle modified by an adverb or adverb phrase or accompanied by complement. Examples: Burning brightly, the fire lit up the room. Holding the snake, I felt its cool skin.

COMMON TYPES OF PHRASES
3. VERBAL AND VERBAL PHRASES


GERUNDS AND GERUND PHRASES A gerund is a form of a verb that acts as a noun.

Examples: Vaulting is my best event in gymnastics. Swallowing hurt my sore throat.

COMMON...
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