Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
* 1st Law of Thermodynamics- Energy not created or destroyed 1. The sum of energy in universe- constant
* 2nd Law of Thermodynamics- energy transfer results in increase entropy (less organization!!) * Adenosine is bonded to 3 phosphates
2. When cell needs energy… it splits off that 3rd P
3. Energy is released, ADP + P is formed, cell uses that energy for whatever it needs 4. Destination of the broken Phosphate??- Used as part of an endergonic reaction in another cell? * Exergonic- catabolism

1. Cellular Respiration, Digestion
* Endergonic- anabolism
2. Protein Synthesis (Polymerization), making cell parts
Cellular Respiration
* Aerobic Respiration
1. Glycolysis
2. Formation of acetyl CoA
3. Krebs Cycle
4. Oxidative Phosphorylation
* Glucose goes into the cycle…
* 6 Carbon to 2, 3 Carbon molecules, called Pyruvic acid
* Occurs in cytoplasm (cytosol)
* Net ATP of 2 (because you used 2 in the beginning), 2 pyruvic acids, 2 NADH * GLYCOLYSIS CAN BE DONE WITH OR WITHOUT OXYGEN
* At this point, the cell can either continue anaerobically or switch to TRUE aerobic respiration Formation of Acetyl CoA
* When oxygen is present, pyruvic acid enters the mitochondrion 1. Each pyruvic acid (2) converted to Acetyl CoA (2)
2. Co2 (2) is released
3. 2 NADH made (still in cytoplasm)
Krebs Cycle
* aka CITRIC ACID CYCLE, takes place in Mitochondrial Matrix * Acetyl CoA enters the cycle one at a time, and all carbons will eventually be converted to CO2 * Oxaloacetate- a 4-Carbon molecule (the Acetyl CoA binds with in this stage…) * this forms a 6-Carbon molecule- Citric Acid

* Since there’s 2 Acetyl CoA to begin with, cycle must turn 2x: 1. 2 ATP
2. 6 NADH
3. 2 FADH2

Oxidative Phosphorylation
* From our notes: uses proton gradient created by ETC to...
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