Philosophy Terms & Definitions

Topics: Philosophy, Mind, Immanuel Kant Pages: 3 (1054 words) Published: October 4, 2014
Terms and Definitions for Intro to Philosophy

TERMS

DEFINITIONS

aesthetics
alienation

the study of what constitutes beauty
in philosophy, a term indicating estrangement of people or things form what is considered their proper state.
(German “fear”); a term introduced by existentialist thinkers to describe the feeling of apprehension invoked when a finite individual recognizes his existence in an infinite world, when he confronts the void outside his own conscious existence.

a term used in the theory of Knowledge to distinguish what comes before experience (the opposite is a-posteriori)
the practice of extreme self-denial and abstention from all forms of pleasure. a denial of the existence of supernatural forces, gods, or God a philosophy first expounded by Diogenes that encourages indifference to social convention and material comforts in order to concentrate on selfknowledge the view that events do not occur by chance, but are caused by preceding events (physical determinism) or by God (divine determinism) (Latin “I”); For Freud, the mind consists of an ego which contains a person’s ordinary thoughts and directs daily behavior, and an id containing all the instincts and repressed feeling.

(Greek empeiria “experience”) a term related to the ways in which the knowledge we can gain or claim to have is related to experience The opposite of empiricism is rationalism, which sees true knowledge as derived purely through thinking and reason.

the intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe, which believed that new scientific understanding shed light upon human affairs and offered opportunity for humankind to understand the workings of the universe through scientific method.

(Greek episteme “knowledge”) a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of knowledge and what can be known
that which is essential (fundamental?) and unchanging within a person, object, or idea.
[Greek ethikos concerning “custom and reputation”] moral philosophy, the...
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