Philosophy Study Guide

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Possible Essay Questions
(Tentative) for Quiz 2
1) What is the traditional west view of human nature? Given this traditionional view of human nature, what is the status of being human in nature? How does Darwin challenge the traditional west view of human nature and what is the consequent change in the status of being human in nature? What is a possible counter argument/rebuttal to Darwin based on “saltation’s”?

- Basic beliefs of the tradition is that we have a soul that is rational and has a purpose. - We are at the top of human nature. (if you kill a dog you don’t get death penalty, if you kill a human in most cases you do…why? Because humans are important/at the top). - Darwin challenges that the soul is both rational and has a purpose; We are equal with all living things in nature. - According to Darwin, it’s false under the rubric of gradualism. (Saltations refer to Macro-evolution).

2) What is Descartes “crucial assumption” and (pg. 76) based on this crucial assumption, what conclusion does he draw? Do you agree with his crucial assumption? – Defend your answer. * Made up of 2 different substances (mind & body)

Interaction Problem- (how can the mind (inmaterial) tell the body (material) to move your (example) arm? Proposed Solutions to the Interaction Problem
1) Rene Descartes
2) Gottfried Liebaiz “parallelism”
3) Nicloas Malebranike “ocassionalism”
Challenges to Traditional view of Human Nature:
1) Darwin- Evolutionary Theory
2) Existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre
3) Feminist Challenge

Existentialism- Lived Existence.
Sartre says Freedom of choice regardless of experiences. You are a free creature you may choose otherwise. “Existence Precedes Essence” Anyst
Freedom- No God.
No Freedom- God.
Flee from your freedom.
1)Dualism: Body (Material Substance), Mind (Immaterial)

Evidence
Evidence
V2) Consciousness- Lacks properties of physical object. Subjectivity Everyone can see a physical...
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