Deductive logic: Part of logic that concerns with tests of validity and invalidity Inductive logic: Part of logic that concerns with tests for strengths and weakness Conclusion indicators:
therefore accordingly entails that
wherefore we may conclude hence
thus it must be that it follows that
consequently for this reason implies that
we may infer soas a result
since in that seeing that
as indicated by may be inferred from for the reason that
because as in as much
for given that owing to
Deductive: Conclusion can’t be false when the premise is true - Involve necessary reasoning
- Math style
1. Categorical syllogism:
All ancient forests are sources of wonder.
Some ancient forests are targets of the timber industry.
Therefore, some sources of wonder are targets of the timber industry. 2. Hypothetical syllogism:
If Fox News is a propaganda machine, then it misleads its viewers. Fox News is a propaganda machine.
Therefore, Fox News misleads its viewers.
3. Disjunctive syllogism:
Either global warming will be arrested, or hurricanes will become more intense. Global warming will not be arrested.
Therefore, hurricanes will become more intense.
Inductive: Improbable that the conclusion is false, when the premise is true - Probabilistic reasoning
1. Prediction: because...