Logic: the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments. Principles that we may use as criteria for evaluating the arguments of others and as guides in constructing arguments of our own Argument: a group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion). Statement: a sentence that is either true/false. Some sentences do not fall onto this category: questions, proposals, suggestions, commands and exclamations Inference: the reasoning process expressed by an argument
Deductive logic: Part of logic that concerns with tests of validity and invalidity Inductive logic: Part of logic that concerns with tests for strengths and weakness Conclusion indicators:
we may conclude
it must be that
it follows that
for this reason
we may infer so
as a result
as indicated by
may be inferred from
for the reason that
Deductive: Conclusion can’t be false when the premise is true - Involve necessary reasoning
- Math style
1. Categorical syllogism:
All ancient forests are sources of wonder.
Some ancient forests are targets of the timber industry.
Therefore, some sources of wonder are targets of the timber industry. 2. Hypothetical syllogism:
If Fox News is a propaganda machine, then it misleads its viewers. Fox News is a propaganda machine.
Therefore, Fox News misleads its viewers.
3. Disjunctive syllogism:
Either global warming will be arrested, or hurricanes will become more intense. Global warming will not be arrested.
Therefore, hurricanes will become more intense.
Inductive: Improbable that the conclusion is false, when the premise is true - Probabilistic reasoning
1. Prediction: because...
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