Philosophy and Fairy Tales

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Sophies World-The only thing required to be a philosopher is the faculty of wonder (17) Philosophy is the opposite of fairy tales (334)
Possible symbol-rowboat with one oar in the lake, and someone needing the rowboat to get home (99) Superstition-negative connotation; faith-positive connotation Influenza-misalignment of the stars; hermetic-hidden, inaccessible; Francis Bacon-“knowledge is power”, invented English essay with loose format. Printing press let us use knowledge to obtain power. Questions

Who are you?
Where does the world come from?
Is there a basic substance that makes up everything?
Can water turn to wine?
How can earth and water produce a live frog?
Why is lego the most ingenious toy in the world?
How can a baker bake fifty exactly identical cookies?
Why are all horses the same
Is there an immortal soul?
Are men and women equally sensible?
Why does it rain?
What does it take to live a good life?
Natural philosophers
Greeks
Assumed that something had always existed
Believed in a basic substance
Took the first step in scientific reasoning, precursors to modern science
Thales
“All things are full of gods”, we can only surmise
Not mythological gods, merely unknown forces or creatures
Basic substance was water
Anaximander
All things are limited, so the basic substance that has always existed must be “boundless” Anaximenes
Air and vapor was origin of Earth, water and fire Eleatics-Focused on the question of the impossibility of a basic substance Paramenides
Everything that exists always has ,conservation of matter
Nothing could become a different thing, contradicted his senses, but followed reason Heraclitus
Nature is in a constant state of change and flow, believed his senses
World is characterized by opposites (if we never got sick, we would never feel well)
Believed in a universal reason or universal law
Empedocles
Agreed with Para. That nothing could change
Agreed with Heraclitus that we must trust our senses
Four elements are combined and separated to make different things. Earth, air, fire water
Love binds things, strife separates them
Distinguished between “force” and “substance”
Anaxagoras
The whole subject is present in every part no matter how tiny
Everything can be divided into smaller particles, e.g. each body cell has all DNA for the body Democritus
Nature had eternal building blocks that could not be cut (atoms)
Combined in different ways to form everything
Infinite variations of atoms, but all were uncuttable
These blocks could be used over and over again when something died
Only believed in material things ,even believed the soul was made of atoms Fatalism
Everything that happened was predetermined, oracles could tell this fate Herodotus and Thucydides ,Greek historians
Hippocrates, inventor of modern medicine and of medical ethics New Greek Age, Athenian democracy
Sophists
They were skeptics, meaning they didn’t believe natures riddles could be answered
Determined between what was natural and what was socially induced
Believed that there were no absolute norms, and that values changed between cultures and society Socrates
Only kknown to us through the writings of Plato
Socratic irony, acted ignorant to prove certain points wrong by asking questions
“Athens is a sluggish horse, and I am the gadfly trying to sting it to life”
Was killed for corrupting the youth and introducing new gods
“One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing”(69)
Believed that “he who knows what good is, will do good”(70), cannot live life doing things you know are wrong...
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