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(1)[All change is either change for the better or change for the worse.] (But) (2)[God is necessarily a greatest possible being.] (So) (3)[he cannot change for the better,] (since) (4)[if he did, he would not have been the greatest possible being prior to the change.] (And) (5)[he cannot change for the worse,] (since) (6)[if he did, he would not be the greatest possible being subsequent to the change.] (Therefore,) (7)[God cannot change.] (G) is which statement?

(1)[All humans have equal positive value.] (2)[There is no morally relevant difference between humans and some animals (such as mammals). (Therefore,) (3)[some animals have equal positive worth with humans.] (4)[Moral rights derive from the possession of value.] (Since) (5)[humans have rights (to life, not to be harmed, and so forth),] (6)[animals have those same rights.] (F) represents which numbered premise?

All Volkswagens are fuel efficient, and this Beetle is a Volkswagen.
So this Beetle is fuel efficient.
(1)Affirmative action in higher education is morally justifiable, (because) (2)it compensates for past discrimination, (3)provides valuable role models for women and minorities, and (4)promotes multicultural understanding.

Independent Premises. The conclusion is #1.
(1)[All Republicans are either moderates or conservatives,] and (2)[Senator Hornswaggle is not a moderate.] (Since) (3)[Senator Hornswaggle is a Republican,] (it follows that) (4)[he is a conservative.] (5)[All conservatives oppose socialized medicine.] (Thus,) (6)[Senator Hornswaggle opposes socialized medicine.] Missing Premise:

(So) (7)[he must be either moderate or conservative.] G REPRESENTS WHICH PREMISE?
(1)[All students should study a foreign language.] (2)[It improves mastery of English.] (3)[It helps to avoid cultural provincialism by expanding the cultural experience of students.] (4)[It is useful for travel and commerce.] (5)[It makes it possible to do advance work in a foreign language, including the study of the major literary works in that language.] (Finally,) (6)[the ability to read, speak, and think in a second language is a source of pleasure and satisfaction even if this language is not used for travel and business and even if it does not become a field of further study.]

Independent Premises. The conclusion is #1.
(1)[Bertie probably isn't home.] 
(2)[His car isn't in the driveway,] and (3)[there are no lights on in his house.]
Independent Premises. The conclusion is #1.
(1)[Creation has no place in a science class] (because) (2)[it is not science.] Why not? (Because) (3)[creationism cannot offer a scientific hypothesis that is capable of being shown wrong.] (4)[Creationism cannot describe a single possible experiment that could elucidate the mechanics of creation.] (5)[Creationism cannot point to a single prediction that has turned out to be right, and supports the creationist case.] (6)[Creationism cannot offer a single instance of research that has followed the normal course of scientific inquiry, namely, independent testing and verification by skeptical researchers.]

Independent Premises.
(1)[Education implies teaching.] (2)[Teaching implies knowledge.] (3)[Knowledge is truth.] (4)[The truth is everywhere the same.] (Hence) (5)[education should be everywhere the same.]
Linked Premises. The conclusion is #5.
Either Blazers are made by Chevy, or Blazers are made by Ford. Therefore, Blazers are made by Chevy.
Blazers are not made by Ford.
Either this is a Contour or it's a Mystique. If this is a Contour, it's a Ford. If this is a Mystique, it's a Mercury.
Either this is a Ford or a Mercury.
(1)[Either this is my car or it's Sandy's car.] (2)[If it is my car, then the key should fit in the lock.] (But) (3)[my key doesn't fit in the lock.] (So,) (4)[this is Sandy's car.]
Linked Premises. The conclusion is #4.
(3)[Either your sister is telling lies, or she is mad, or she is telling the truth.] (4)[You know she doesn't tell...
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